Mohandes K Gandhi Chronology
1869-82 - His youth was dominated by his family's strong belief in a Hindu sect
called Vaisnavism whose chief tenets are nonviolence and the belief that
everything in the universe is eternal. His schooling and grades were mediocre.
He developed a burning passion for self- improvement and philosophies of truth
and sacrifice. He married at age 13.
1887 - Joined
Sept, 1888 - Sailed to
1888-1891 - Studied in,
1889 - 1890 - Introduced
to H P Blavatsky and Annie Besant of the Theosophical Society in
1891 - Returned home briefly and learned of his mother's death. Gandhi found
that his law degree was not considered of too much value. He
accepted a mediocre year-long contract with an Indian firm in
1891-96 - In
being lndian. Gandhi would not accept the injustice as part of the natural or
unnatural order in
man. He became quite a proficient political campaigner.
1894 - Ready to return to
Legislative Assembly that would have deprived Indians of the right to vote. In
response, he founded the Natal Indian Congress and worked to expose the
discriminations practiced against the Indian population.
1896 - He went back to
people and the prominent leaders to return to
The Europeans in
him upon his return.
1899 - At the outbreak of the Boer War, Gandhi organized an ambulance corps of 1,100 volunteers, arguing that Indians who claimed British citizenship rights
were also obligated to fight with the crown.
1906 - After the British victory, the
for the registration of the Indian population. Gandhi organized a mass protest
meeting and convinced the Indians attending to take a pledge to both defy the
ordinance and to suffer all the penalties which came from their defiance.
1913-14 - Gandiii negotiated an agreement with General Jan Christian Smuts which ended the seven-year-long struggle against the ordinance. Hundreds had gone to jail in protest, and thousands had struck work, facing terrible repression.
Gandhi had frequent stays in jail, during one of which he made a pair of sandals
for Smuts. When Gandhi left for
has left our shores; I hope forever."
1915-19 - A time of relative inactivity. Gandhi helped recruit soldiers for the
lndian Army, though at the same time he criticized British officials for their
treatment of the Indian peasantry. In 1919 after the passage of bills that
allowed for the imprisonment of Indians suspected of sedition without trial,
Gandhi announced a satyagraha struggle. This shook the continent.
1920-24 - Gandhi led thousands of satyagrahis to defy discriminatory laws as he
argued that the main obstacle to home rule was not colonial force but the
spiritual imperfections of the Indians themselves. The program of non-violent
noncooperation included strikes and boycotts of British manufactured goods. In
1922, Gandhi decided to call off the action after outbreaks of violence. He was
arrested and sentenced to six years for sedition. Released after an operation
for appendicitis, Gandhi found that suspicion had grown between Hindu and Muslim factions. He conducted a three week fast to encourage people to follow the path of non-violence.
1930-32 - After a period of relative inactivity, Gandhi began a satyagraha
campaign to protest the tax on salt. The action resulted in imprisonment of over
60,000 persons. A truce was called in 1931 and Gandhi attended a Round Table
1934 - Gandhi resigned from the Congress Party after coming to the conclusion
that his followers had adopted nonviolence only as a political tactic. He began
programs that emphasized cottage industries and a style of communal living,
education he felt more suited to the peasant population.
1942-47 - In the last phase of British rule, Gandhi was once again politically
active in demanding for the immediate withdrawal of British colonialists. The
government responded by imprisoning the entire Indian Congress. With
the victory of the British Labour Party in 1945, new negotiations ensued which
ended in the plan of 1947 to create two new dominions of
January, 1948 - While on his way to an evening prayer meeting, Gandhi was
assassinated by Nathuram Godse, a young Hindu fanatic.