Theosophical Society Cardiff Lodge

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Sanskrit Glossary

& Pronunciation Guide


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            abhasa [pronunciation: aabhaas]: reflection of consciousness

            abhijna [ubhij^na]: direct perception

            abhimana [ubhimaan]: attachment

            abhyasa [ubhyaas]: practice

            abhyasi [ubhyaasi]: one who practices

            achala [uchul]: unmoving; hill or mountain

            achit [uchit]: not sentient

            acharya [uchurya]: scholar, learned man; a term of respect

            adhama [ ]: lowest grade

            adhara [aadhaar]: support

            adhishtana [udhishthaan]: substratum

            adhridha [udhr^dh]: weak; not firm

            adhyaropa [udhyaarop]: superimposition

            adhyasika [udhyaasik]: superimposed

            advaita [udvait]: non-duality; incorrectly termed monism; a system

            of thought and a vedantist sect founded by Shankara

            advaitin [ ]: non-dualist

            adya [aadyaa]: primordial; original

            adyatmika sakti [aadyaatmik sh^akti]: power of the Self

            agami (a. karma) [aagaami karm]: actions of the present life

            expected to bear fruit in future births

            agni [ ]: fire

            aham [uhum]: embodied self; soul; the ego; the sense of "I"

            aham Brahmasmi [uhum bruhmaasmi]: I am Brahman

            aham sphurana [uhum sphurun]: the throb of Self-bliss in the heart

            aham svarupa [uhum svuroop]: one's true nature

            aham vritti [vr^tti]: the 'I'-thought

            ahankara [uhunkaar]: 'I' sense; ego-self; 'the doer'

            ahimsa [uhimsaa]: nonviolence

            ajna [aaj^naa]: direction; injunction

            ajnana [uj^naan]: ignorance; knowledge of diversity

            ajnani [uj^naani]: one who has not realized the Self; unenlightened;

            ignorant of the Self

            akara [aakaar]: form or shape


            akasa (akasha) [aakaash^]: ether; space

            akriptopasaka [ukriptopaasuk]: one who has not done upasana or


            alayavijnana [ ]: pure, self-existent consciousness

            amrita [umrit]: immortal

            amritanadi [umritunaadi]: the channel for the flow of consciousness

            from the Heart (Source) to the mind; the path by which it travels is

            termed archis

            anadi [unaadi]: without beginning

            ananda [aanund]: bliss; happiness; joy; Transcendence attained

            primarily through the affections manifests more as Bliss than as


            anandatman [aanundutmun]: self in the state of bliss

            ananta [ununt]: endless; infinite

            anartha [unurtha]: evil; worthless

            anatman [unaatmun]: non-Self

            anava [aanuv]: limitation

            anichcha [unichchh; conjunct 'ch' and 'chh', pronounced without any

            vowel between; good luck!]: involuntary

            anitya [unitya]: transitory

            antah (antar) [untuH (untur)]: internal

            antah karanam (antahkarana) [untuH kurun(uM)]: means of perception;

            the mind; the ego; the thinking power

            antah pranayama [untuH praanaayaam]: internal breath-regulation

            antardhana [unturdhaan]: disappearance from sight

            antarmukha drishti [unturmukh dr^shti]: inward vision

            antarmukti manas [unturmukti munus]: inward-turned mind; mind

            retained in the Heart

            anu [unu]: atom

            anubhava [unubhuv]: experience; realization

            anushthana [unushthaan]: practice; attainment of knowledge

            anuttara samyak sambodhi [unuttur sumyuk sumbodhi]: see samyak


            ap [aap]: water

            apana [upaan]: the life-force that goes down

            apara [upur]: the lower; inferior

            aparoksha [upurok^sh]: direct; immediate; direct experience (as

            opposed to sensory experience)

            apavada [upuvaad]: removal

            aprana [upraan]: beyond manifest life; devoid of life

            arati [ ]: divine service performed in the early morning or at dusk

            archis [ ]: see amritanadi

            artha [urtha]: money

            arudha [aarudh]: attainment

            aruna [urun]: red

            arupa [uroop]: formless; timeless being

            asamsakti [usumsh^ukti]: non-attachment; one of the seven stages of


            asamskrta [usunskr^t]: not pertaining to the impermanent; Chinese wu


            asana [aasun]: yogic posture

            asat [usut]: unreal

            asesha sakshi [ush^esh saak^shi]: witness of all

            ashram [ ]: hermitage

            ashtanga Yoga [ushtaang yog]: Yoga consisting of eight stages of


            asrama [aash^rum]: one of the four life-stages of a spiritual

            seeker; the dwelling of a sage and his followers

            asraya [ ]: ground of Reality (as opposed to movement)

            asthira [usthira]: unsteady

            asuddha [ush^uddh]: bliss

            asukavi [usukuvi]: one who can versify impromptu

            asura [usur]: demon; similar to a Titan or fallen angel

            ati jagrat [uti jaagrut]: beyond waking

            ati sunya [uti sh^oonya]: beyond the void

            atiasrama (atyasrama) [utiaash^rum]: above the four stages of life

            atita [uteet]: beyond

            atma (atman) [aatm(un)]: the Self; principle of life and sensation;

            I AM; subjective moment of consciousness; in the highest sense, the

            Universal Spirit or the Supreme Soul of the Universe (see Paramatman)

            atma dhyana [aatma dhyaan]: contemplation on the Self

            atma jnani [aatma j^naani]: one who has realized the Self

            atma nishta [aatma nisht]: abiding in the Self

            atma prajna [aatma pruj^naa]: innate Self-consciousness

            atma prema [aatma prem]: Self-love

            atma sakti [aatma sh^ukti]: power of the Self

            atma siddhi [aatma siddhi]: Self-realization

            atma vichara [aatma vichaar]: inquiry into the Self

            atma vidya [aatma vidya]: knowledge of the Self

            atmasakshatkara [ ]: Self-realization; enlightenment

            atmanusandhana [aatmunusundhun]: thinking constantly of the Self

            atyanta vairagyam [utyunt vairugyum]: total dispassion

            avarana [aavurun]: covering

            avastha traya [uvusthaa truya]: the three states of consciousness,

            namely waking, dream and sleep

            avatar [uvutaar]: incarnation of God

            avidya [uvidyaa]: nescience; ignorance of our true nature; all

            consciousness or knowledge, so long as it is restricted to the

            subject-object manifold

            avritta chakshus [aavr^tt chuk^shus]: introverted look

            ayatana [aayutun]: repository




            bahir pranayamam [buhir praanaayaam]: external breath regulation

            bahir mukha drishti [buhir mukh dr^shti]: outward turned


            bahir mukhi manas [buhir mukh munus]: letting the mind go out of the

            Heart; externalization

            bahudaka [buhooduk]: a sannyasin who wanders about

            bahya [baahya]: external

            bala [baal]: child

            bandha [bundh]: bondage

            bandha hetu [bundh hetu]: cause of bondage

            beeja [beej]: seed (see bija)

            Bhagavad-gita [bhuguvud geet]: Hindu religious scripture, "almost

            wholly in the form of a dialogue between Krishna, who represents the

            Self, the Atman, or Cosmic Consciousness, and Arjuna, who

            symbolizes the egoistic man of action. It gives a brief resume of the

            Roads by which Union or Yoga may be attained. This is one of the

            most important manuals that point the Way to Cosmic Consciousness."

            (Franklin Merrell-Wolff)

            bhagavan [bhuguvun]: God; the Lord; one who has realized his

            identity with the Self

            bhajan (bhajana) [bhujun]: worship (of the Lord); singing God's

            praises, esp. in chorus

            bhakta [bhukt]: devotee

            bhakti [bhukti]: devotion; love (of God)

            bhakti marga [bhukti maarg]: path of devotion

            bharata [bhurut]: shining soul

            bhashyakara [bhaashyukur]: commentator

            bhavana [bhaavun]: contemplation of a personified deity with great


            bheda [bhed]: difference; differentiation

            bhikshu [bhik^shu]: Buddhist monk, literally beggar

            bhoga [bhog]: enjoyment

            bhogya vasta [ ]: child

            bhogyam [bhogyuM]: that which is enjoyed

            bhokta [bhokt]: enjoyer

            bhuma [bhoomaa]: all-comprehensive; the Absolute

            bhumika [bhoomikaa]: stage

            bhutatathata [ ]: the Absolute viewed as the universal womb

            bija [beej]: seed; source

            bija-mantra [beej muntra]: a one-word seed-mantra or exclamation of


            bodha [bodh]: knowledge; Truth

            bodhi [bodhi]: enlightenment; full illumination; the opposite of


            bodhisattva [bodhisuttva]: destined for enlightenment but wants to

            take all beings along

            bodhikaya [bodhikaaya]: the body of the Absolute viewed as the fruit

            of enlightenment

            Brahma [bruhm]: Lord of Creation; God as the Creator; "I am present"

            brahmachari [bruhmuchaari]: a celibate; student stage of life

            brahmacharya [bruhmuchurya]: celibacy

            Brahmaivaham [bruhmaivaahuM]: Brahman am I

            Brahmajnana [bruhmuj^naan]: realization of one's absolute being

            Brahmajnani [bruhmuj^naani]: one who has realized the Self

            brahmakaravritti [bruhmaakaaruvr^tti]: concept in the form of Brahman

            Brahman [bruhmun]: the Universal Self; the Absolute

            Brahmanishta [bruhmaanishtha]: one who is established in Brahman

            Brahmarandhra [ ]: Brahma-aperature; opening in the crown of the

            head; fontanelle; "the tiniest of aperatures, in which is the

            silent, primordial sound, which gives you the impression that you

            are, but you really are not" (Nisargadatta)

            Brahmavid [bruhmuvid]: one who has realized Brahman

            Buddha [buddh]: one who is aware; a synonym for the Buddhakaya or

            Absolute state, where the Real Self is known for what it is

            buddhi [same]: intellect; one of the four aspects of the internal

            organ; "It is also Compassion, in the highest sense, the very Soul

            of the Law of Harmony or Equilibrium" (Franklin Merrell-Wolff)




            chaitanya [chaitunya]: consciousness

            chakra [chukra]: wheel; subtle center of energy in the body

            chakshus [chuk^shus]: eye

            chanchala [chunchula]: changing, fickle

            chandrayana [ ]: particular method of expiatory fasting

            chela [ ]: student; disicple

            chidabhasa [chidaabhaas]: reflected consciousness

            chidakash [ ]: consciousness

            chidananda [chidaanund]: bliss of the Self

            chidvyoman (chitt vyoman) [chidvyomun]: expanse of consciousness

            chinmaya [chinmuya]: full of consciousness

            chinta [chintaa]: thought, idea

            chintamani [chintaamuni]: wish-fulfilling gem


            chit [same]: Absolute Intelligence, universal consciousness

            chitakasa [ ]: Mental ether (all-pervading)

            chit jada granthi [chit jud grunthi]: the knot between pure

            consciousness and the insentient body; the ego

            chitta [chitt]: memory aspect of mind; the mental mode turned

            towards objects

            chitta nirodha [chitt nirodh]: control of mind

            chitta suddhi [chitt sh^uddhi]: purity of mind

            chitta vilasa [chitt vilaas]: play of mind

            chittaikograta [chittaikogrutaa]: one-pointedness of mind




            dahara vidya [duhuraa vidyaa]: contemplation of the deity in the


            dana [daan]: gift; alms; relinquishment

            darsan(a), darshan [dursh^un]: seeing; vision

            dasi [daasee]: courtesan

            deha(m) [deha(M)]: body; existence

            'deham, naham, koham, soham' I am the body; I am not the body; who

            am I? I am He.

            dehatma buddhi [dehaatma buddhi]: I-am-the-body

            dehavasana [dehuvaasunaa]: attachment to the body

            deva [devaaH]: a god or celestial being

            devakanya [ ]: a class of minor female divinity

            devata [devutaa]: a goddess

            Devi [same]: the Divine Mother; a goddess

            dharana [dhaarunaa]: concentration of mind; one of the eight stages

            of Raja Yoga

            dharma [dhurmuH]: teaching of Buddha; universal law; way or path; an

            entity of any sort - thing, idea, concept, etc; virtuous deeds;

            harmonious life; natural duty; inherent qualities

            dharmakaya [dhurmukaayaa]: the Dharma-Body or the Absolute, viewed

            as the Ultimate Reality with which Buddhas or Enlightened Beings are

            one and indivisible

            dharma dhatu [dhurm dhaatu]: the Absolute, i.e. the Dharma-Realm

            Dharma Raja [dhurm raaj]: the Buddha

            dharma sastri [dhurm sh^aastri]: one well-versed in the scriptures

            relating to dharma

            dhatu(s) [dhaatu]: humors; constituent elements of the body

            dhriti [dhr^tiM]: steadfastness

            dhyana [dhyaan]: meditation; contemplation; the seventh rung in the

            eightfold ladder of yoga

            dhyana siddhi [dhyaan siddhi]: successful meditation

            dikpalas [dikpulus]: gods who protect the various quarters

            diksha [dik^sh]: spiritual initiation

            divya chakshus [divya chuk^shus]: divine eye

            drashta [drushtaa]: seer

            dridha [dr^dh]: firm

            drik [dr^k]: he who sees; the subject

            drishti [dr^shti]: look; seeing

            drishti srishti [dr^shti sr^shti]: simultaneous creation

            drisya [dr^sh^ya]: that which is seen; the object

            drisya vilaya [dr^sh^ya viluya]: disappearance of the objective world

            drisyanuviddha [dr^sh^yaanuviddh]: associated with something seen

            dukha [dukh]: misery; frustration

            dvaita [dvait]: duality

            dvandva [dvundv]: pair of opposites

            dvividha (dwividha) [dvividh]: two-fold




            eka [ek]: one

            ekagrata [ekaagrutaa]: concentration

            ekanta vasa [ekaant vaas]: free from mental concepts; "dwelling in

            mental solitude"




            Ganapati [gunuputi]: the elder son of Siva, the remover of

            obstacles; same as Ganesha, the chief of Siva's hosts

            ganapati [gunuputi]: consciousness

            ganesan [ ]: darkness

            ganja [gunj]: a narcotic; hashish

            gate [guta]: gone

            gatha [ ]: a verse, usually of a sacred kind

            Gayatri [gaayutri]: a sacred Vedic mantra

            gita [geet]: song

            gnana [j^naan]: see jnana

            gnani [j^naani]: see jnani

            gopuram [same]: temple tower

            granthi [grunthi]: knot

            granthi nasam [grunthi naash^um]: destruction of the knot (of


            grihastha [gr^husthaaH]: householder

            grihini [gr^hini]: housewife

            guna(s) [gun]: the three fundamental qualities, tendencies or

            stresses that underlie all manifestations: sattva, rajas and tamas

            gunatita [gunaateet]: one who has transcended the gunas

            guru [same]: a spiritual master

            guru kripa [guru kr^puH]: guru's grace




            hamsa [hums]: advanced sannyasi

            Hanuman [ ]: a powerful deity, son of the Wind god; great devotee of

            Sri Rama; famous monkey who helped Rama in his fight with Ravana

            hasta [hust]: hand

            hatha yoga [hutha yog]: a form of yoga involving body postures, and

            for gaining control over Prana

            hetu [same]: cause, reason

            hinayana [heenuyaan]: one of the two major divisions of Buddhism;

            prevalent in Southeast Asia

            hiranyagarbha [hirunyugurbh]: universal consciousness; cosmic mind;

            cosmic egg; the Unmanifested mind (see mahat tattva), the "golden


            homa [hom]: sacrifice in fire

            hridaya(m) [hr^duya(M)]: heart; spiritual center of the body

            hridaya granthi [hr^duya grunthi]: knot of the heart; the idea that

            one is one's body

            hrit [hr^t]: heart

            hrit pundarika [hr^t pundureek]: the heart lotus




            ichcha [ichchh; conjunct 'ch' and 'chh', pronounced without any

            vowel between]: desire; will

            idam [idum]: this

            Indra [indraa]: Lord of the devas; first student of Brahma vidya

            indriya(s) [indriyuH]: senses

            Isa [eesh^]: Supreme Lord

            ishta devata [isht devutaa]: the god one likes to worship

            Isvara (Iswara) [eesh^vur]: God; the Supreme Being in His aspect of

            Lord of the worlds

            Isvara anugraha [eesh^vur unugruha]: God's grace

            Isvara drishti [eesh^vur dr^shti]: seeing everything as God

            Isvara prasada [eesh^vur prusaad]: God's grace

            Isvara svarupa [eesh^vur svuroop]: the true form of God




            jada [jud]: insentient

            jaganmaya [jugunmaaya]: the mystery of the world

            jagat [jugut]: world; changing

            jagrat [jaagrut]: waking state

            jagrat sushupti [jaagrut sushuptiH]: aware or awake while asleep;

            being aware but not concerned

            jai [same]: victory

            jala [jula]: water

            janma [junma]: birth

            japa [jup]: repetition of a sacred word or syllable or name of God

            japa karta [jup kurtaa]: one who does japa

            jirna [jeern]: decayed

            jiva [jeev]: individual soul or ego

            jivanmukta [jeevunmukt]: realized soul

            jivanmukti [jeevunmukti]: liberation while alive

            jivatman [jeevaatmun]: the individual self

            jnana(m) [j^naan(aM)]: knowledge of the Absolute; enlightenment;

            Supreme Knowledge; Self-realization

            jnana bhumika(s) [j^naan bhoomikaa]: stages of knowledge (seven)

            jnana chakshus [j^naan chuk^shus]: eye of wisdom

            jnana drishti [j^naan dr^shti]: wisdom-insight

            jnana grantha [j^naan gruntha]: Vedantic works

            jnana lakshana [j^naan luk^shun]: sign of wisdom

            jnana marga [j^naan maarg]: path of knowledge

            jnana vichara [j^naan vichaar]: inquiry regarding knowledge

            jnana yoga [j^naan yog]: the method of realizing the Absolute

            through knowledge

            jnanagni [j^naanaagni]: fire of wisdom

            jnanameva chakshus [ ]: All-seeing eyes

            jnanendriya [j^nunendriya]: sense organ

            jnani [j^naani]: sage; one who has realized the Self

            jothi (jyoti) [jyotiH]: light; effulgence




            Kailas [kailaas]: a mountain in the Himalayas reputed to be the home

            of Siva

            kaivalya [kaivulya]: Absolute Oneness; final emancipation

            kali yuga [kuli yug]: the last of the four ages of the world

            kalpana [kulpunaa]: idea; imagination of the mind; creation


            kama [kaam]: desire; physical love; lust

            kantha [kuntha]: throat

            kanthabharana [kunthaabhurun]: neck ornament

            kanya [kunyaa]: virgin

            kara [ ]: a combining form meaning achieved or achievement

            karana [kaarun]: cause

            karana sarira [kaarun sh^ureer]: causal body

            karma [kurm]: action; work; deeds; also the result of action

            karma marga [kurm maarg]: path of ritual, religious duties, and


            karma samya [kurm saamya]: good and bad actions in equal proportions

            karma traya [kurm truya]: the three kinds of karma, namely sanchita,

            agami and prarabdha

            karma yoga [kurm yog]: the spiritual path of action

            karmendriya [kurmendriya]: organ of action

            karpura arati [kurpoor aaruti]: the waving of lighted camphor during


            karta [kurtaa]: he who does an act; doer

            kartrtva [kurtr^tva]: doership

            kartrtva buddhi [kurtr^tva buddhi]: sense of being the doer

            kashaya [kushaaya]: latent impurity

            kashaya [kaashaaya]: ochre-colored garment

            kayakalpa [kaayukulp]: medicinal preparation for prolonging life

            kayasiddhi [kaayusiddhi]: making the body proof against injury

            kendra [ ]: center; heart

            kevala kumbhaka [kevul kumbhuk]: retention of breath leading to

            stilling of the mind

            kevala nirvikalpa [kevul nirvikulp]: the state of remaining without

            concepts; bliss of vijnana

            kevala samadhi [kevul sumaadhi]: samadhi in which activities of body

            and mind are only merged

            khanda [khund]: division

            khyati [khyaati]: theory

            klesa [klesh^]: a defilement, passion etc.

            kousalam [koush^ulum]: skill

            kosa [ ]: sheath

            krama mukti [krum mukti]: liberation by degrees

            krama srishti [krum sr^shti]: gradual creation

            krida [kr^d]: play; pastime

            kritopasaka [kritopaasuk]: one who has done upasana or meditation

            kriya [ ]: physical action

            krodha [krodh]: anger

            kshanti [k^shunti]: forebearance

            kshetra [k^shetra]: temple; in Yoga, field of the body

            Kshetrajna [k^shetruj^na]: the conscious principle (Knower) in the

            field of the body; the absolute witness of the three states of the

            self - waking, dream and sleep

            kshipta [k^shipt]: active

            kumbha [kumbh]: pot used for keeping water

            kumbhaka [kumbhuk]: retention of breath

            kumkuma [same]: vermilion powder applied to the forehead

            kundalini [kundulini]: primordial cosmic energy located in the

            individual; mystic circle of three and a half coils situated in the

            umbilical region; yogic principle of serpent power

            kutichaka [kuteechuk]: a sannyasin who lives permanently in a hut

            kuvasana [kuvaasun]: bad tendency




            laghu [lughu]: light; easy

            lakshana [luk^shun]: sign; definition

            lakshya [luk^shya]: aim; target; goal; attention

            lakshyartha [luk^shyaartha]: implied meaning

            laya [luya]: dissolution; merging; in Yoga, absorption of breath and

            mind in the heart

            lila (leela) [leela]: play or sport

            linga [ling]: symbol

            linga sarira [ling sh^ureer]: subtle body

            loka [lok]: world; that which is seen

            loukika [loukik]: worldly




            madhya [mudhya]: center; mixed; middling

            madhyama [mudhyum]: a stage in uttering sounds; middle grade

            mahadakash [ ]: the entire universe; world of action

            maha [ ]: great

            maharshi (Maha Rishi) [muhur^shi]: great rishi or sage

            mahaparinirvana [muhaapurinirvaan?]: ultimate Nirvana (Nirvana can

            be achieved in this lifetime; ultimate Nirvana then follows at death)

            mahasunya [muhaash^oonya]: great void

            mahat [muhut]: intellectual principle as source of ahankara

            mahat tattva (mahattava) [muhaat tuttva]: essential principle of

            being; the great principle (from the Absolute emantes the

            Unmanifest, from it Mahat, and from Mahat the ahankara)

            mahatma [muhaatmaa]: lofty soul; highly spiritual person

            mahavakya(s) [muhaavaakyaa]: the four main sentences proclaiming the

            truth of Brahman, one from each Veda

            mahayana [muhaayaan]: one of the two major divisions of Buddhism,

            prevalent in the more northerly countries of Asia - China, Tibet,

            Japan etc.

            Mahesvara [muhesh^vuraH]: one of the five aspects of Siva, as

            veiling the Truth from souls till their karma is completely worked

            out; also, Siva as Para-Brahman, the Absolute

            malaparipaka [mulupuripaak]: complete removal of impurity

            malina [mulin]: impure

            manana [munan]: constant thinking over what has been heard;

            reflection; meditation; the second of the three stages of Vedantic


            manas [munus]: mind, reason, mentality; also used for the aggregate

            of chitta, buddhi, manas and ahankara

            mani [muni]: jewel

            manolaya [munoluya]: (temporary) subsidence of the mind; dissolution

            of the mind into its cause

            manomaya kosa [munomaaya kosh^]: sheath of mind

            manonasa [munonaash^]: extinction of the mind

            manonigraha [munonigruha]: rendering the mind quiescent

            manta [muntaa]: thinker

            mantra (mantram) [muntra(M)]: sacred syllable(s) used in meditation

            mantra japa [muntra jap]: repetition of a mantra

            marana [muruN]: causing death through supernatural powers

            marga [maarg]: path

            maru marichika [muru mureechikaa]: mirage seen in a desert

            math (mutt) [ ]: meeting place; abode of Sadhus

            mati [muti]: thinking power

            mauna [same]: see mouna

            maya [maayaa]: illusion; the power of Brahman by which it manifests

            the world; the veiling and projecting power of the universe

            maya vada [maayaa vaad]: the doctrine of maya

            mayavadi [ ]: one who says the world is an illusion

            mayasakti [maayaash^ukti]: the power of maya

            medha [medhaa]: intellect

            mitha [ ]: non-existent

            mithya [mithyaa]: the false; unreal

            moda [mod]: joy which is higher than priya

            moksha [mok^sh]: Liberation; freedom from transmigration

            moodha [moodh]: dull

            moola [mool]: root; source

            mooladhara [moolaadhaar]: one of the yogic centers of the body

            mouna (mauna) [same]: Silence; the Truth of Brahman, expressed by

            the Brahman-knower by his mere abidence in stillness

            mouna diksha [ ]: initiation by silence

            mriga trishna [mr^g tr^shn]: water of a mirage

            mudra [mudraa]: hand pose in worship and dance

            mukta [same]: one who is liberated

            mukti [same]: Liberation

            mula [ ]: origin; root; base

            mulavidya [moolaavidyaa]: primal ignorance

            mumukshu [mumuk^shu]: one who aspires to Liberation; the first

            stage, when the seeker feels that there is something beyond this

            material universe but is still identified with his body-mind; the

            next stage is that of the sadhaka

            mumukshutva [mumuk^shutva]: desire for Liberation

            muni [same]: sage; austere person

            murti [same]: idol



            na medhaya [nuh medhuya]: not by the intellect

            nada [naad]: mystic sound; subtle sound accompanied by an effulgence

            nadasvaram [naadusvurum]: the pipe of the South Indian piper

            nadi(s) [naadi]: yogic nerves conveying the life force; main ones

            are Ida, Pingala and Sushumna

            naham [naahum]: I am not

            naishtika brahmacharya [naishtik bruhmuchurya]: lifelong celibacy

            nama [naam]: name; the name of God

            nama japa [naam jup]: repetition of the name of God

            nama sankirtan [naam sungkeertun]: singing the names of God

            nama smarana [naam smurun]: remembering and repeating the name of


            namarupa [numurup]: name and form; the nature of the world

            namaskar(a) [numuskaar]: homage; prostration before God or Guru

            nana [naanaa]: diversity

            naraka [nuruk]: hell

            nasa [naash^]: destruction

            nava [nuv]: new

            neti-neti [same]: "not this, not this"; negating all names and forms

            in order to arrive at the eternal underlying truth

            nididhyasana [nididhyaasun]: the last of the three stages of

            vedantic realization; uninterrupted contemplation

            nijananda [nijaanund]: true bliss

            nirakara upasana [niraakaar upaasunaa]: meditation on the formless

            nirasa [niraash^]: desirelessness

            nirguna [nirgun]: without attributes

            Nirgunabrahman [ ]: the impersonal, attributeless Absolute

            nirguna upasana [nirgun upaasunaa]: meditation on the attributeless


            nirmanakaya [ ]: the Body of Transformation in which Buddhas and

            Bodhisattvas take on physical characteristics similar to those of

            ordinary beings for the purpose of delivering such beings

            nirodha [nirodh]: control

            nirvana [nirvaan]: Liberation; the final state into which beings

            enter when, becoming Enlightened, they are no longer bound by the

            consciousness of an illusory ego; release from samsara

            nirvikalpa samadhi [nirvikulp sumaadhi]: the highest state of

            concentration, in which the soul loses all sense of being different

            from the universal Self, but a temporary state from which there is a

            return to ego-consciousness

            nirvikappa [ ]: without the modifications of the mind

            nisarga [ ]: nature

            nischala bhava [nishchulaa bhuv]: steadfastness; Eternity

            nishkama, niskama [nishkaam]: desirelessness

            nishkama karma [nishkaam kurm]: acts done without a motive

            nishta [nishtha]: abidance in firm meditation

            nitya [same]: eternal

            nitya siddha [nitya siddh]: ever present

            nivritti [nivr^tti]: destruction; cessation of activity

            nivritti marga [nivr^tti maarg]: path of renunciation

            niyama [niyum]: law, rule, discipline as ordained for the second of

            eight yogic stages




            om [same]: a mystic syllable, used as a mantra

            owpacharika (aupacharika) [aupuchaarik]: in a worldly sense




            padarthabhavini [pudaarthaa bhaavinee]: absolute nonperception of

            objects; one of the seven stages of enlightenment

            padmasana [pudmaasun]: the 'lotus' yogic posture

            panchakshari [punchaak^shaari]: a mantra of five syllables sacred to


            pandit [pundeet]: learned man; scholar; man of wisdom

            para [puraa]: higher; supreme; other; in Tantricism, unmanifest sound

            para bhakti [puraa bhukti]: supreme devotion

            para nadi [puraa naadi]: a yogic nerve

            para vibhuti [puraa vibhooti]: superior vibhuti

            parabraham [purubruhm]: the Absolute

            Parabrahman [ ]: the Supreme Absolute

            param [purum]: transcendental

            paramahamsa [purumuhums]: a sannyasin who has attained


            paramakash [purumukush]: the Absolute

            paramapada [purumupaad]: Supreme state

            paramarthika [paarumaarthik]: Absolute; true Self

            paramarthika satyam (p. satyan) [paarumaarthik sutyum]: absolute


            paramatma(n) [purumaatma(n)]: the Supreme Self; Universal Brahman

            paramita [purumit]: a means of crossing to the further shore,

            thereby entering Nirvana

            paranchi khani [puraanchi khaani]: outgoing

            parantapa [puruntup]: Arjuna, as 'he who destroys his enemy'

            pareccha [purechchhaa; conjunct 'ch' and 'chh', pronounced with no

            vowel between]: by another's will

            parinama vada [purinaam vaad]: the theory of Brahman changing into

            the world

            parinirvana [purinirvaan]: beyond nirvana; used to indicate that the

            concept of nirvana as the blissful opposite of samsara doesn't point

            to the final realization

            paripurnam [puripoornum]: the perfect state

            paroksha [purok^sh]: hearsay; indirect

            phala [phul; NOT ful]: fruit; the result of an act

            phala chaitanyam [phul chaitunyum]: knowledge

            phala data [phul daataa]: dispenser of the results of our acts

            phala sruti [phul sh^ruti]: description of the result of an act

            pisacha(s) [pish^uchaa]: demon(s)

            poorna (see purna)

            pradakshina [pruduk^shin]: going around a sacred person or place

            pradeepta [prudeept]: shining brightly

            prajna [praaj^na]: consciousness; awareness; highest wisdom,

            transcendent wisdom; also employed as a synonym for the universal


            prajnana [pruj^naan]: full consciousness

            prajnana ghana [pruj^naan ghun]: Brahman, the Absolute; immutable


            prakriti [prukriti]: nature; primal substance out of which all

            things are created; Maya; causal matter; also called shakti

            pralaya [pruluya]: complete merging; dissolution (of the world)

            pramada [prumaad]: swerving from abidance in the Absolute

            pramana [prumaan]: means of valid knowledge

            pramata(r) [prumaat(ur)]: knower, cognizer

            pramoda [prumod]: joy higher than moda

            prana [praan]: life-force, breath, vital air that goes up

            pranasakti [praanush^ukti]: the power of the vital forces

            pranava [prunuv]: another term for Om

            pranava japa [prunuv jup]: incantation of Om

            pranayama [praanaayum]: breath control

            prapatti [pruputti]: surrender

            prapti [praapti]: attainment

            prarabdha [praarubdh]: the part of one's karma (destiny) to be

            worked out in this life

            prasad(a) [prusaad(a)]: divine blessing; food which has been offered

            to God and afterwards distributed among the devotees

            prasthana traya [prusthaan truya]: the threefold canon of Vedanta

            (Upanishads, Brahma Sutras, and Bhagavad Gita)


            pratibhasika satya [praatibhaasik sutya]: illusory reality as it

            appears to an individual

            pratikam [pruteekum]: symbol

            pratikriya [prutikriyaa]: remedy

            pratyabhijna [prutyubhij^na]: recognition

            pratyahara [prutyaahaar]: withdrawal of senses from objectivity;

            fifth rung in the Raja Yoga ladder

            pratyaksha [prutyuk^sh]: direct, immediate

            Pratyeka-Buddha [prutyek buddh]: one who achieves Enlightenment on

            his own and who does not then go forth to preach the Dharma

            pravritti [pruvr^tti]: pursuing what is desirable

            pravritti marga [pruvr^tti maarg]: path of action

            prayaschitta [praayush^chitt]: a rite for expiating sin

            prayatna [pruyutna]: proper and adequate effort

            prema [prem]: divine love [for God]

            preta [pret]: a hungry, tantalized ghost, led by evil karma into

            that sad but temporary state of existence

            prithvi (prthvi) [pr^thvi]: earth

            priya [same]: joy; dear

            puja [pooj]: ceremonial worship with flowers, water etc.

            punya [same]: merit

            puraka [pooruk]: inhalation

            purana [puraan]: old; eighteen ancient books of stories embodying

            religious symbolism, attributed to Vyasa

            puri [puree]: city

            puriashtaka [puriushtuk]: subtle body consisting of eight phases

            purna (purnam) [poorn(uM)]: full; infinite; complete

            purusha (purusa) [purush]: man; spirit, soul; applied sometimes to

            God as the living principle; the Self which abides in the heart of

            all things

            purushakara [purushukaar]: personal effort

            purushartha [purushaartha]: human ends; objectives worthy of human

            pursuit (dharma, artha, kama and moksha)

            purushottama [ ]: Supreme Divine Being

            purva [poorv]: previous

            purva paksha [poorv puk^sh]: arguments advanced by the opponent

            purva samskara [poorv sumskaar]: latent tendencies




            Raja Yoga [raaj yog]: the principle system of Yoga as taught by


            rajas [rujus]: one of the three primal qualities - described as red,

            the principle of activity; energy; passion; restlessness

            rajju-sarpa [rujju surp]: rope-snake; a rope looking like a snake in

            a dim light

            randhra [ ]: aperature; see Brahmarandhra

            rasa [rus]: bliss

            rasasvada [rusaasvaad]: taste of bliss in the absence of thoughts

            ravi marga [ruvi maarg]: path of the sun

            rechaka [rechuk]: exhalation

            rishi (rshi) [r^shi]: a seer; a sage

            Rudra [rudruH]: Siva in his aspect as Destroyer

            rupa [roop]: beautiful form




            sabdanuviddha [sh^ubdunuviddh]: associated with sound

            sad guru [sud guru]: true guru

            Sada Siva [sudaa sh^iv]: Siva as eternal goodness

            sadhak(a) [saadhuk]: a spiritual aspirant; one who follows a method

            of spiritual discipline; the stage following mumuksku, where the

            seeker becomes convinced that he is the beingness or consciousness

            sadhana [saadhun]: method of spiritual practice; path

            sadhana-chatushtaya [saadhun chutushtuya]: the four qualifications

            expected in an aspirant

            sadhu [saadhu]: ascetic; sage; pious or righteous man; a sanyasin

            sadhu seva [saadhu sev]: service rendered to sages

            sadhya [ ]: thing to be accomplished

            sadsisya [sudsh^ishya]: true disciple

            sadyomukti [sudyomukti]: immediate Liberation

            saguna [sugun]: with attributes

            saguna upasana [sugun upaasun]: meditation on Brahman with attributes

            Sagunabrahman [sugunubruhm]: the Absolute conceived of as endowed

            with qualities

            sahaja [suhuj]: natural; one's natural state

            sahaja jnani [suhuj j^naani]: sage in the state of sahaja nirvikalpa


            sahaja nirvikalpa samadhi [suhuj nirvikulp sumaadhi]: natural state

            of absorption in the Self with no concepts

            sahaja samadhi [suhuj sumaadhi]: samadhi which comes naturally and

            is present always

            sahasradala [ ]: the thousand petalled lotus; center of illumination

            in crown of the head

            sahasrara [suhusraar]: the highest yogic center located in the brain

            sajatiya [sujaateeya]: of the same kind

            sakama [sukaam]: with desire

            sakshat [suk^shaat]: here and now

            sakshatkaram [suk^shaatkaarum]: direct realization

            sakshi(n) [suk^shi(n)]: witness; the Self

            sakti (shakti) [sh^ukti]: power; energy; force

            sakti pata [sh^ukti paat]: descent of divine power on a person

            sama [sum]: equal, common

            samadhi [sumaadhi]: advanced state of meditation; absorption in the

            Self; Oneness; the mind becoming identified with the object of


            samana [ ]: one of the ten vital airs

            samanya [saamaanya]: common, general, ordinary

            samasta [sumust]: whole

            samatva [sumutva]: equality

            sambodhi [sumbodhi]: Supreme Enlightenment

            sambogakaya [ ]: the body in which Enlightened Beings enjoy the

            rewards of liberation from worldly things and in which they can

            appear to other beings in insubstantial form

            samjna [sumj^na]: discernment

            samjnana [sumj^naan]: awareness; perception

            samkalpa(s) [sumkulp]: fancies

            samrajya [saamraajya]: empire

            samsara [sumsaar]: the realm of relativity, transience and illusion;

            the process of worldly life; the bondage of life, death and rebirth

            samskara(s) [sumskaar]: innate tendencies; impressions created by

            previous actions and thoughts

            samskrta [sumskr^t]: the impermanent; Chinese yu wei


            samvid [ ]: true awareness

            samvit [sumvit]: consciousness; knowledge

            samyak-sambodhi [sumyuk sumbodhi]: Supreme Enlightenment

            samyamana [ ]: one-pointedness of mind

            sanchita (s. karma) [sunchit kurm]: accumulated karma of former

            births that still remains to be experienced

            sandeha [sundeha]: doubt

            sanga [sung]: association; brotherhood

            sangsara [sumsaar]: see samsara

            sankalpa [ ]: intention; thought; desire; imagination; volition,

            mental activity, tendencies and attachments

            Sankhya [saankhya]: one of the six systems of Indian philosophy

            sannidhi [sunnidhi]: presence

            sannyasa (sanyasa) [sunnyaas]: asceticism, renunciation

            sannyasasrama [sunnyusaash^rum]: the last of the four stations of


            sannyasi(n) [sunnyaasi(n)]: an ascetic; one who belongs to the

            fourth stage of life

            santi [sh^aanti]: peace

            santodanta [ ]: one who is calm and self-controlled

            sanyasin [sunnyaasin]: see sannyasin

            sarira [sh^ureer]: body

            sariri [sh^ureeri]: dweller in the body

            sarira traya [sh^ureer truya]: the three bodies, namely the

            physical, subtle and causal

            sarupa [ ]: with form; having form

            sarva [surv]: all

            sarvajna [survuj^na]: omniscient

            sarvajnatvam [survuj^nutvum]: omniscience

            sarvatma bhava [survaatma bhaav]: abidance in Oneness

            Sarvesvara [survesh^vur]: the supreme Lord

            sastra (shastra) [sh^aastra]: scripture; science; a sacred treatise

            or a commentary on a sutra

            sat [sut]: good; existence; being; reality

            sat-chit-ananda [sut chit aanund]: being-consciousness-bliss

            satsang(a) [sutsung]: association with the wise

            sattva (satva, sattwa) [suttva]: purity; one of the three primal

            qualities of prakriti - described as white

            sattvapatti [sutvaaputti]: realization; one of the seven stages of


            sattvic [saattvik]: pure

            satya [sutya]: Truth; the real

            savikalpa samadhi [suvikulp sumaadhi]: a state of concentration in

            which the distinction between the knower, knowledge and known is not

            yet lost

            sayujya [saayujya]: union; identity

            shadadhara [shudaadhaar]: the six yogic centers

            Shakti [sh^ukti]: see sakti, prakriti; represented mythologically as

            the wife of a god; Reality; Self; Power of Creation

            shastra [sh^aastra]: see sastra

            siddha [same]: one who has acquired supernatural powers and is

            capable of working miracles; a perfected Yogi

            siddhi [same]: supernatural power; realization; attainment

            sila [sh^eel]: the moral precepts observed by Buddhism

            sishya [sh^ishya]: disciple; fit student

            Siva [sh^iv]: God as destroyer and restorer of worlds

            Sivoham [sh^ivohum]: I am Siva

            sloka [sh^lok]: a stanza in Sanskrit; a verse of praise

            Skanda [skunduH]: younger son of Siva; leader of the divine hosts

            skandha [ ]: one of the five components (skandhas) of personality;

            inherited tendencies, physical and mental

            smriti [smr^ti]: memory; scriptures other than the Vedas

            soham [sohum]: I am He (Brahman)

            sparsa [spursh^]: touch

            sphurana (sphurna) [sphurun]: manifestation; throbbing or breaking;

            bursting forth; vibration

            sraddha [sh^ruddhaa]: faith; earnestness

            sravaka [sh^ruvuk?]: one who approaches the Dharma as a result of

            hearing it preached

            sravana [sh^ruvun]: hearing of the Truth, from the Guru

            srishti drishti [sr^shti dr^shti]: gradual creation

            srota [sh^rot]: hearer

            srotra [sh^rotra]: ear

            sruti [sh^ruti]: sacred text; Vedas, heard by sages in their

            transcendental state and transmitted to disciples by word of mouth

            sthitaprajna [sthitupraaj^na?]: one established in wisdom

            sthiti [same]: being; existing

            sthula [sthool]: gross

            sthula sarira [sthool sh^ureer]: physical body

            stotram [stotrum]: hymn of praise

            stuti [same]: devotional singing

            subhechcha [sh^ubechchh; conjunct 'ch' and 'chh']: desire for

            enlightenment; one of the seven stages of enlightenment

            suddha [sh^uddh]: pure

            suddha sattva [sh^uddh suttva]: essentially pure

            suddha sattva svarupa [sh^uddh suttva svuroop]: the form of purity

            sukha [same]: happiness

            sukha asana [sukh aasun]: easy and comfortable sitting posture

            sukshma [sook^shm]: subtle

            sukshma sarira [sook^shm sh^ureer]: subtle body

            sunya [sh^oonya]: blank; the Void

            sunyata [ ]: the emptiness of all separate things; the impermanence

            and unreality of all forms

            sunyavadin [sh^oonuvaadin]: nihilist

            sushumna (susumna) [sushumn]: one of the yogic nerves, through which

            the kundalini rises

            sushupti (susupti) [sushupti]: dreamless sleep

            sutra [sootra]: string; aphorism; actual teaching attributed to

            Gautama Buddha or very occasionally someone else

            suvasana [suvaasunaa]: good tendency

            svagata [svugut]: within itself

            svami [svaami]: see swami

            svapna [svupna]: dream; dreaming state

            svarga [svurg]: heaven

            svaroopa (swarupa) [svuroop]: essential nature; true nature of

            Being; real form, unconditioned by rajas (activity) and tamas


            svarupa nishta [svuroop nishtha]: abidance in the Self

            swami [svaami]: mystic or yogi; one who is in control of himself;

            one's own master

            swaraj [svuraaj]: independence

            swatantra [svutuntra]: independence

            swechcha [svechchh; conjunct 'ch' and 'chh']: of one's own will




            tadakaranilai [tudaakaarunilai]: abiding in the form of That (the


            taijasa [taijus]: the individual being in dream; brilliance

            tamas [tumus]: inertia; darkness; ignorance; ego; one of the three

            primal qualities - described as black

            tanha [tunhaa]: thirst (for living)

            tanmatra(s) [tunmaatra]: elements in their subtle forms

            tanmaya [tunmuya]: full of the Self

            tanmaya nishta [tunmuya nishtha]: abidance in the Self

            tanumanasa [tunumaanus]: tenuous mind; one of the seven stages of


            tapas (tapasya) [tupus (tupusyaa)]: austerity

            tapobhrashta [tupobhrusht]: one who has fallen away from his


            tapta-aya-pindavat [tupt uya pinduvut]: like a red-hot iron ball

            Tat [tut]: That; Brahman

            Tat tvam asi [tut tvum usi]: 'That thou art'

            Tathagata [tuthaagut]: a Buddha, literally the Thus-Gone; the

            Suchness of all Dharmas

            tathata [ ]: Suchness; essence of mind; Buddha-nature; Tao; true Self

            tattva [tuttva]: truth; essence of a thing

            tattva bhoda [tuttva bodh]: knowledge of the Truth

            tattva jnana [tuttva j^naan]: knowledge of Brahman or Atman

            tattvam [tuttvuM]: Reality; Truth

            tejas [tejus]: effulgence

            tejo rupa [tejo rup]: of the form of light

            tejomaya [tejomuya]: full of light

            tirtha [teertha]: a sacred river or tank

            Tripitaka [ ]: the entire collection of Buddhist scriptures

            triputi [same]: triad like seer, seen and seeing

            turavu (Tamil) [turuvu]: renunciation

            turiyatita (turiwateeta) [tureeyaatit]: beyond the fourth state; the


            turya (turiya) [same]: the fourth state beyond waking, dreaming and

            deep sleep; ever present and unchanging witness-Consciousness

            turyaga [turyugaa]: beyond words; one of the seven stages of


            tyaga [tyaag]: giving up




            udana [udaan]: one of the vital airs, having its seat in the neck,

            controlling the intake of food and air

            udasinam [udaaseenum]: indifference

            upadesa [upudesh^]: instruction or guidance of a Guru

            upadhi [upaadhi]: limiting adjunct; subtitle; body-related

            Upanisad(s) [upunishud]: philosophical writings forming part of the

            Vedas; knowledge portion of the Vedas

            upasaka [upaasuk]: meditator; layman who lives according to certain

            strict rules

            upasana [upaasun]: meditation; contemplation

            upasana sthana [upaasun sthaan]: seat of meditation

            uttama [ ]: highest grade




            vac (vak) [vaac]: speech

            vachyartha [vaachyaartha]: literal meaning

            vada [vaad]: theory; disputation

            vaikhari [vaikhuri]: audible sound

            Vaikuntha [vaikuntha]: the abode of Vishnu

            vairagya [vairaagya]: dispassion; nonattachment

            Vaishnavite (Vaishnav) [vaishnuv]: worshipper of Vishnu

            vajra [vujra]: imperishable, real, ultimate; literally diamond or


            Vajrayana [ ]: the school of Mahayana Buddhism prevalent in Tibet

            and Mongolia, commonly called Lamaism in the West

            varistha [vurishtha]: the most excellent

            varnasrama dharma [vurnaash^rum dhurm]: dharma of the various castes

            and stages of life

            vasana [vaasun]: habit of the mind; latent tendency, impression or

            predisposition due to experiences of former lives; subtle desire

            vasana kshaya [vaasun k^shuya]: cessation of vasanas

            vastu [vustu]: substance; reality

            vastutah [vustutuH]: in reality

            Vasudeva [vaasudev]: Krishna as the son of Vasudeva, the Lord who

            created the world

            vayu [vaayuH]: air; vital breath; the Wind god

            Veda [ved]: sacred lore; scriptures revealed through the Rishis

            (Rig, Yajur, Sama and Atharva Vedas)

            vedana [vedunaa]: reception of sensation

            Vedanta [vedaant]: absolute Truth as established by the Upanishads,

            Brahma Sutras, and Bhagavad Gita as interpreted by Vyasa; the end or

            consummation of the Vedas

            veena [veen]: a stringed instrument

            vibhakti [vibhukti]: separation

            vibhuti [vibhooti]: sacred ashes; God's glory; supernatural power

            vichara [vichaar]: inquiry into the true nature of the Self

            vichara marga [vichaar maarg]: spiritual path of inquiry

            vicharana [vichaarun]: investigation; one of the seven stages of


            videha mukta [videha mukt]: a liberated being after he has left the


            videha mukti [videha mukti]: Self-realization after leaving the body

            vidya [vidyaa]: knowledge (of Brahman)

            vijatiya [vijaatiya]: of a different kind

            vijnana [vij^naan]: spiritual knowledge; discriminating the real

            from the unreal; principle of pure intelligence

            vijnanamaya kosa [vij^naanumuya kosh^]: sheath of the intellect

            vijnanatma [vij^nunutma]: the ignorant self

            vijnata [vij^naataa]: knower

            vikalpa(s) [vikulp]: doubt(s)

            vikshepa [vik^shep]: diversity

            vikshipta [vik^shipt]: distracted

            vinaya [vinuya]: the discipline practiced by Buddhist monks; humility

            viparita [vipureet]: contrary

            virat [viraat]: macrocosm; totality of gross beings; the physical


            virya [veerya]: zeal; vitality

            visesha [vish^esh]: particular; special

            vishaya [vishuya]: object

            Vishnu [vishnu]: God as preserver

            vishya vasana(s) [-?- vaasun]: predisposition toward sense enjoyments

            visishta [vish^isht]: qualified

            visishtadvaitin [vish^ishtaadvaitin]: one who believes in a modified

            form of non-duality

            visranti [vish^raanti]: repose

            visva [visva]: the individual being in the waking state; the all

            visvarupa (v. darsana) [visvuroop dursh^un]: God seen as the universe

            vivarta vada [vivurt vaad]: theory that Brahman appears as the

            world, soul and God, like a rope appears as a snake, without itself

            undergoing any change

            vivechana [vivechun]: discrimination

            viveka [vivek]: wisdom; discrimination between the Real and the

            unreal; disciminative inquiry

            viyoga [viyog]: separation

            vritti [vr^tti]: modification of the mind; mental concept;


            vyakta [ ]: the karma-bound individuality

            vyakti [ ]: the transient personality

            vyana [vyaan]: one of the ten vital airs, causing the circulation of

            the blood

            vyaptam [vyaaptum]: pervaded

            Vyasa [ ]: the great sage who wrote the Brahma Sutras

            vyashti [vyushti]: part

            vyavahara (vyavaharika) [vyuvuhaar (vyaavuhaarik)]: empirical

            vyavahara satya [vyuvuhaar sutya]: phenomenal existence




            yaga [yaag]: ritualistic sacrifice

            yajna [yuj^na]: sacrifice

            yama [ ]: self-control; the first rung in the ladder of eightfold

            yoga (abstention from lying, killing, theft, lust, covetousness

            etc.); also, the god of death (Yama)

            yoga [yog]: union (with the Supreme); literally, a yoke or

            discipline; the technique of meditation whereby the individual

            brings himself into unity with the Ultimate Reality; the four paths

            to this union are jnana, the path of knowledge, karma, the path of

            action, bhakti, the path of devotion, and raja, the royal path,

            which is a synthesis of the other three; the philosophy of the sage


            yoga marga(s) [yog maarg]: yogic path(s)

            yoga maya [yog maayaa]: magical power

            yogabhrashta [yogubhrusht]: one who has slipped from yoga

            yogarudha [yogaaroodh]: one who has attained yoga

            yogi [same]: follower of a path of yoga

            Yogiraja [yogiraaj]: king of yogis; Sri Vasudeva

            yugapat srishti [yuguput sr^shti]: simultaneous creation


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