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Glossary of

Welsh Mythology



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 History of Theosophy in Wales




Aber Alaw - in Talebolyon. Where the Seven Who Returned from Ireland landed, on the holy Isle of Anglesey (North Wales). Here, Branwen died. 


Aberffraw - Branwen and Matholuch passed their wedding night here. 


Abergenoli - by the sea. Alternative burial site of

Pryderi, mentioned in the ancient Englynion Beddau. The favored site, however, is Maen Tyriawc. 


Aberdaeron - Fishing village on the Llyn peninsula (North Wales). The old house, Y Gregyn Fawr, served as a hostel for pilgrims visiting Saint Mary's Abbey on Bardsey Island. Quiet in

winter, the area bustles with tourists in the summer. The church has a 12th century nave, a south aisle was added in the 16th century. Gruffydd ap Rhys, who married Gwenllian the daughter of the prince of Gwynedd, sought sanctuary here when the Normans invaded south Wales. Stories are a little confused, some

suggest he needed to seek sanctuary after Gruffydd ap Cynan, Prince of Gwynedd, had indicated that he would hand him over to King Henry 1st. He is then said to have escaped back to South Wales, followed by Gwenllian.Richard Jones (Dic Aberdaeron) who lived from 1780-1843 claimed to be able to speak 35 languages and produced a dictionary for Welsh, Greek and Hebrew. The

book is kept at Saint Asaph cathedral, where Richard Jones is buried.Fishing for crab and lobster make this an ideal place to stop for seafood.

Nearby are worked out quarries that once yielded jasper and a 'pink' marble. Aberglaslyn Pont Aberglaslyn is the opening to the pass of Aberglaslyn. The name illustrates how things have changed, Aber means mouth or estuary and until the embankment was built at Portmadoc the river could be navigated by small boats to this point. The pass is the result of glacial action.Abersoch is a village that is fast becoming a seaside resort, caravan sites and a golf course show the pattern of development that will surely come. It has a

harbour and two large sandy beaches. There are excursions from here to Saint Tudwal's islands, one of which has the remains of a medieval priory. Todays inhabitants are guillemots and puffins. Tudwal was a 6th century Breton who may

have stopped here on his way fleeing after the fall of Rome. The other island formerly had a lighthouse. In 1934 the islands were bought by Clough Williams-Ellis. there is a legend associated with the site of Castellmarch (near Abersoch) that would have you believe it was named after King Mark, the figure in the story of Tristan and Isolde. He was supposed to have had super-large ears

and hairdressers were sworn to secrecy when they cut his hair (with a threat of death should they reveal the secret, as someone must have !). The unfortunate barbers were buried in a marsh and when a musician made a set of pipes from the

reeds and started to play the pipes sang out the story.


Abergwyngregyn - The name means a river estuary with white shells. Caernarfonshire (North Wales) village with a sandy beach. Traeth Lafan (the Lavan Sands) were once crossed at low tide to get to Beaumaris on Ynys Môn (Anglesey). Morden's map of 1668 shows this as a ferry crossing. The church here contains a bell which used to be rung in mists to warn of the incoming tide. There is said to be a sunken village (Llys Helig) under the sands. It is possible a medieval causeway ran out along the sands when it was still an important crossing place to Ynys Môn. Nearby (3 km) are the Aber falls. Rhaedr Fawr drops about 40 metres through a series of cascades. It is believed that Llywelyn the Great had a palace here, probably made of wood, which stood on a mound known now as Y Myd. The mound was most likely constructed as part of a defence by the Normans. Saunders Lewis wrote his drama Siwan, about the wife of Llywelyn, set in this area. Joan was supposed to have fallen in love with William de Braose whilst he was being held a prisoner by her husband. Once his ransom had been paid Llywelyn invited William back to a feast, when he then killed William by hanging him and invited Joan to view the body.


Aber Menai (North Wales coast) - the port from which Matholuch sailed for Ireland with Branwen. 


Aber Menei - between here and Caer Seon, Gwydion and his son set out by boat toward Caer Arianrhod, as shoemakers. 


Abyss - Annwn. Especially that part of Annwn where Havgan rules the Eastern Dead. 


Alaw - On its banks, Branwen was buried. 


Alban - land by the northern sea. Yr Alban is the modern Welsh word for Britian. 


Altai - far Eastern valleys whence came the New Tribes, 


Amaethon - third son of Don, and a prince of Gwynedd (North Wales). A farmer and husbandman, he is God of Agriculture. He

became so by stealing the three secrets of growth (a

bitch, a hind, and a lapwing) from Arawn, King of Annwn. The battle of Cad Goddeu followed, in which Gwydion assisted Amaethon by turning trees into warriors. 


Amergin - Ireland's High Druid, oldest and wisest of Ireland's Old Tribes. Had he still lived, the great war between Ireland and the Island of the Mighty might have been prevented. 


Ancient Harmonies - mystic rules governing Birth, Life, and Death, observed by most of the Old tribes

 (especially Math) and by the wisest of the New Tribes. 


Anghar the Loveless - Havgan's seat in Annwn. Capitol of Meslam. 


Anglesey (North Wales) - once joined to Carnarvon by the tall forests of the Sinking Lands. It is separated from the Island of the Mighty by the Straits of Menai. 


Angus of the Birds - an ancient, legendary figure in

Ireland. His mother was the Ancient Irish Goddess for whom the river Boyne was named. 


Annwn - Arawn's realm. The Abyss. The Underworld in which all things first took shape. World of Middle Light. It is the first world above our own. Annwn was challenged by Havgan, but Arawn, with the help of Pwyll, defeated him. Later, Amaethon raided Annwn for the secrets of agriculture and husbandry, stealing a bitch,

a hind, and a lapwing. 


Arawn - King of Annwn. He changes places with Pwyll of Dyved for a year and a day in order that Pwyll may help him defeat Havgan Summer-White, ruler of the Dead of the Eastern World. Arawn is the Grey Man of Earth, a Death Lord who kills in order to bring forth new life. He is first-born and husband to Modron, the Goddess behind all

the Gods. 


Arberth - Pwyll's chief seat. Dyved's capitol city.

After Pwyll's death, it remained Queen Rhiannon's

principle seat. 


Arianrhod - "Silver Wheel." Daughter of Don, and

Princess of Gwynedd (North Wales). Sister and lover to Gwydion. Mother of Dylan and Llew. Dwelt in Caer Arianrhod in the sea, where she and her three sisters, Elen, Gwennan, and Maelan, guard a sacred well. As her name suggests,

Arianrhod is probably representative of the Moon



Arllechwedd - the mightiest fortress in Gwynedd (North Wales) stood here. This is where the sty was built for the stoeln swine while the war was fought between Gwynedd and Dyved (Mid & South West Wales). 


Arvon - principle realm of the High King of the Island of the Mighty. 


Arwystli - between here and Keri is the second Mochdrev.


Beddgelert (North Wales) Situated at the foot of Moel Hebog. The legend of Gellert, the faithful hound, is associated with the village thanks to an enterprising Victorian who was looking for reasons to attract tourists.Some attribute the 'adoption' of the story to David Prichard, the landlord of the Royal Goat Inn, who was known for his interest in folklore. It is believed that Prichard and the parish clerk set up the cairn which it is claimed is the site of Gellert's Grave.

For those interested in tracing legends the story of the faithful hound, Gellert, is also found in a 15th century document that mentions its association with Beddgellert.

A similar legend is associated with a number of other places in Europe. The more likely origin of the name of the village is after Saint Kelert. An Augustinian priory once stood on the site of the present church and was a stopping point for

those en route to Ynys Enlli (Bardsey island) as a pilgrimage.


Beli of the Deep - ancient High King to the Island of the Mighty, commemorated on Beltane by the Celts. Brother of black-haired Penardim who was wife to Llyr. Their son, Bran, succeeded Beli as High King. 


Beltane - a Celtic feast or holiday in honor of Beli. 


Bleiddwn the Wolfling - wolf whom Math changed to a boy. Bleiddwn was parented by Gwydion and Gilvaethwy while they were sentenced by Math to roam the forests of Gwynedd (North Wales) in the shape of beasts, for their offence against Goewyn. 


Blodeuwedd - "Flower-like." She was fashioned from flowers by Gwydion and Math to be Llew's bride, since he could not have a mortal woman because of the destiny laid on him by Arianrhod. However, Blodeuwedd learns the secret of Llew's mortality and betrays him to her lover, Goronwy Pevr. For this, Gwydion turns her into an owl -

"flower face." She may be a Dawn Goddess transformed into a Dusk Goddess. 


Boyne (Ireland) - Bran's host beached near the mouth of this river on reaching Ireland, and in its waters, Bran bathed. It was named for an Ancient Goddess, Mother of Angus of the Birds. The river Boyne flows past Tara and past the Brug na Boinne. 


Bran of the Glittering Branches - a Champion of Faery in the battle of the Cad Goddeu. In guessing his name, Gwydion won the battle. He may have been the ghost of Bran the Blessed. 


Bran the Blessed - first born of Llyr and Penardim; nephew and successor to Beli of the Deep as High King of the Island of the Mighty. He led the hosts of the Island of the Mighty against King Matholuch of Ireland to avenge the wrongs committed to Branwen, Bran's sister and Matholuch's wife. Being of unusually large

proportions, Bran was forced to wade through the Sinking lands to reach Ireland. On returning, he was ambushed at Morddwydtyllyon, and received a fatal wound from Matoluch. Bran was called "ancestor to many saints." 


Branwen - "the White Breast." Daugher of Llyr and Penardim, princess of the Island of the Mighty. Bran consents to her marriage to Matholuch, High King of Ireland, and to her leaving the Island of the Mighty. In Ireland, she is mistreated and dishonored but she manages to send word to Bran, by means of a starling.


This begins the great war between Ireland and the Island of the Mighty. Her son, Gwern, is killed by Evnissyen, and she herself dies before returning to the Island of the Mighty. 


Brenhines-y-nef - another title of Modron. 


Bright World - the realm of Faery. Rhiannon was a

princess here, where Gwawl the Bright asked her father, King Heveydd the Ancient, for her hand in marriage. However, Pwyll succeeds in bringing her to Dyved (Mid & South West Wales) to become his own bride. And though Gwawl had sworn to take

no vengeance for this, the Grey Man of the Bright World, Llwyd ap Kilcoed, blasts Dyved for seven years. Gorsedd Arberth was a door to the Bright World in Dyved. 


Brug na Boinne - stone tomb in Ireland on the Banks of the Boyne, older than the oldest of Egypt's pyramids. 


Bryn Aryen - along the sea shore between Caer Seon and Caer Arianrhod. Point of departure for Llew's trip to win arms from his mother, aided by Gwydion. 


Bryn Kyvergyr - hill from which Goronwy cast the spear that killed Llew. Later, Llew was restored by Gwydion, and from this same hill he cast the spear that killed Goronwy. It is by the banks of the Cynvael. 


Cad Goddeu - a magical battle in which Gwydion turned trees to men to aid his brother Amaethon, who had stolen the secrets of agriculture and husbandry (a bitch, a hind, and a lapwing) from Arawn, King of Annwn. The great champion from out of Faery, Bran of the Glittering Branches, fought in that battle, and Gwydion won the

battle by guessing his name. 


Caer Arianrhod - in the sea (off North Wales coast ). Also called the Castle of the Silver Wheel. It rose from a tiny islet in the sea, bound on all sides by water. Here, Arianrhod and her three sisters were priestesses to a sacred well. Caer Arianrhod was destroyed when Arianrhod opened the Casket of Ancient Spells and invoked the powers of the well. Her three sisters managed to escape the final cataclysm.

Off the coast near the North Wales Village of Dinas Dinlle just south of Carnarvon there are two islands, Maes and Arianrhod which are submerged at high tide.


Caer Dathyl - Math's deep-moated court in Gwynedd (North Wales). (Pen y Gair in Carnarvonshire in modern Wales.) 


Caer Govannon - at the Vale of the Conwy (North Wales coast), where Govannon's forge stood, at the mouth of the river Conwy.


Caer Loyu - home of Kigva. By the Severn (Border between England and South East Wales). After Kigva, ruled by her Nine Witch-aunts. 


Caer Seon - in Arvon. Here, Branwen's starling found Bran. At that time, it was Math's court, though it would later fall to Gwydion. Here too, Llew was raised. As the Fortress of Llew and Gwydion, it was called Dinas Dinllev (Now Dinas Dinlle on North Wales coast). 


Caer Sidi - the capitol of the Country Undersea, the Lost Lands of the West. 


Calch Llassar - a blue enamel created by Llassar, and used by Manawyddan. 


Caradoc - son of Bran. One of the Seven Chiefs left

behind to guard the Island of the Mighty, during the war with Ireland. All seven chiefs were slain by Caswallon who used magic to make himself invisible. Caradoc is named by the Triads as one of the Three Chief Guardians.



Carnarvon - once joined to Anglesey (North Wales) by the tall forests of the Sinking Lands. 


Casket of Ancient Spells - saved from the Sinking Lands and brought to the Island of the Mighty. Although Math would have returned them to the Lost Lands of the West, Don preserved them, telling only Arianrhod of their hiding place. Its power contributed to the destruction

of Caer Arianrhod (North Wales coast). 


Castle of the Silver Wheel - Caer Arianrhod (q.v.). 


Caswallawn - variant of Caswallon. 


Caswallon - the Cunning. Second son of Beli. During the war with Ireland, he stayed behind in the Island of the Mighty and, aided by magic of invisibility, slew six of the Seven Chiefs. Caradoc, their chief, died of his own love for the men who were slain. Caswallon then seized the throne of High King while Bran, the true High King,

was in Ireland. Bran never returned and Manawyddan, the rightful heir, chose not to dispute Caswallon's claim to the throne. Caswallon is named one of the Three Gold Shoemakers for his disguise when he went to Gaul to save Flur from being abducted by the Imperial Caesar and King

Mwrchan the Thief. 


Cauldron of Rebirth - belongs to Arawn, in Annwn, though Llassar and Kymideu Kymeinvoll managed to steal a shadow of it, which they brought first to Ireland and then to the Island of the Mighty where they gave it to Bran. He

gave it to Matholuch as face-price for Evnissyen's

offence to the Irish. On earth, the Cauldron had the power to re-animate corpses and send them forth to kill. Matholuch unleashed this weapoin against Bran's forces in the great war between Ireland and the Island of the Mighty. In the end, it is destroyed by Evnissyen. In actuality, the Cauldron of Rebirth remained with Arawn

in the Underworld. Only a shadow of it could be brought to earth. 


Ceridwen - Dark Queen of the Lake, Goddess of Druids and Bards. 


Cevn Clydno - the height where Gwydion turned boulders to horses and disguised himself and Llew as bards. 


Cludd - father of Gwawl the Bright. 


Clynnog Fawr (North Wales) - The site of a monastery founded by Saint Bueno in the seventh century (615 ?).

The land was given to Bueno by Gwyddiant, the prince of Gwynedd. The church was rebuilt in the reign of Henry 7th and has a carved roof and rood screen. The remains of Saint Bueno are supposed to be in the chapel that adjoins the main church. The church was an important stopping point on the pilgrimage to Bardsey island. The present church is mainly 16th century, the rood screen dates to

1531. The north porch has an outside stairway and there is a sundial on one of the walls. Inside are a pair of dog tongs, dated to 1815 and a chest of unknown origin (called the Chest of Bueno) or purpose. There is a passage that links the

tower to the chapel that is reputed to have been used as the village jail at one point. The present chapel was restored in 1913. Bueno's Well is about 400 metres from the church near the site of a cromlech.


Coed Helen - between the Maenors of Penardd and Coed Alun. Math's host crossed it while advancing on Dyved's army. 


Conwy (North Wales coast) - river where Llew bathed before his marriage, at a spot near Caer Dathyl. Caer Govannon lies near the mouth of this river. 


Cornwall - its shores were seen on the 80th day of the feast in Gwales. 


Corwrion - a varient of Creuwyrion. 


Country Undersea - Lost Lands of the West. 


Cradoc - father of Huw. 


Cruerdilad the Fair-Tressed - dwelt in Arvon. Pebin's lover went to live with her. 


Creuwyrion - in Arllechwedd; the town in which the sty was built to hold the swine stolen from Dyved in the ensuing war. 


Curig - a saint and the bishop of Llanbadarn. Capel Curig (North Wales) on the road between Bangor and Bettws y Coed is named after him.


Cuthah - Havgan's chief temple in Sumer. 


Cynvael - Goronwy Pevr and his men killed a stag near this river when Blodeuwedd first noticed them and asked them to Mur y Castell. On the banks of this river, near Mur y Castell, Goronwy killed Llew. And after Llew is restored by Gwydion, he kills Goronwy at the same spot. Earlier, at a ford of this river, the Velenryd, Gwydion defeated Pryderi in battle. Above that ford, Pryderi was



Deheubath - neighboring kingdom to Gwynedd (North Wales). 


Dinas Dinllev (North Wales coast south of Carnarvon) - Caer Seon at a later time. Fortress of

Gwydion and Llew. Llew's Town. 


Dinodig - best cantrev of Gwynedd (North Wales). It was divided into Eivionydd and Ardudwy, the latter given to Llew and Blodeuwedd. 


Dispair - the Bird which met Pwyll in Annwn. 


Dol Pebin - in Arvon. Dwelling place of Pebin. 


Dol Pen Maen - Pryderi's army retreated to make final camp here, in the war against Gwynedd (North Wales). 


Don - sister to Math the Ancient. Of the Old Tribes. Mother to Gwydion, Govannon, Amaethon, Arianrhod, Eveyd, Gilvaethwy, Elen, Gwennan, and Maelan. 


Dylan - son of Arianrhod, delivered to her when Math tested her claim of virginity. His father was a Lord of Caer Sidi. After birth, he returned to the land of his father, but upon returning to earth he is slain by Govannon through a trick of Arianrhod's. Dylan may represent darkness, as his brother Llew represents light. 


Dyved (Mid & South West Wales) - Pwyll's Kingdom; and later, Pryderi's. It consists of one- and-twenty cantrevs in the South, though for a time the Seven Cantrevs of Seissyllwch were independant. Pryderi won them back in his first war. Because of the friendship that existed between the Lords of Dyved and the Lord of Annwn, it was generally a prosperous land, though for seven years it was blighted ty Llwyd, over whom Arawn had no power. In the end, Manawydden defeated Llwyd, and Dyved continued to prosper. Though, years later, Gwydion raided the land to

steal the sacred swine. 


Edeyrnion - green wood near the Town of the Seven Chiefs. 


Eigr - serving girl at Caer Seon who told the young Llew of the circumstances of his birth. 


Eldest Folk - the stone circle of the Preseli Mountains (South West Wales)in Dyved. 


Elen the Demure - Arianrhod's sister and a Princess of Gwynedd (North Wales). One of the Priestesses of the Eye of the Deep on the Islet of Arianrhod. She is less discreet than her other two sisters. She escaped to Tyddyn Elen when Caer

Arianrhod was destroyed. 


Englynion Beddau - the ancient source which mentions Abergenoli as the burial site of Pryderi. 


Entertaining by the Noble Head - the feast at Harlech (North Wales coast)  with the talking head of Bran, which lasted for seven days. 


Ereshkigal - Queen of the Eastern Dead. A mother of rebirth, dethroned by Havgan, Lord of Eternal Death, the Destroyer. 


Erin - Ireland. 


Ervyll - father of Fodor. 


Eurosswydd mab Maelgwyn - a Chief among the New Tribes who holds Llyr captive, and demands Penardim as ransom. She comes to him to save Llyr, and Eurosswydd becomes the father of Nissyen and Evnissyen. 


Eveyd(1) - fifth son of Don, and Prince of Gwynedd (North Wales). A great magician who could never perceive wisdom. 


Eveyd(2) - fourth son of Beli. 


Evnissyan - twin to Nissyen. Son of Penardim and

Eurosswydd. Motivated by his own self-hate and love of discord, he is primarily responsible for the offence against Matholuch which led to the war with Ireland. Later, he is responsible for the death of Gwern. However, his last act is to destroy the Cauldron of Rebirth which Matholuch had been using against Bran's forces. 


Eye of the Deep - sacred well on the Isle of Arianrhod (North Wales coast), guarded by its priestesses Arianrhod and her three sisters. The powers it contained were released when Arianrhod opened the Casket of Ancient Spells and used

it. The forces released destroyed Caer Arianrhod. 


Faery - the Bright World. 


Fear - the beast which met Pwyll in Annwn. 


Fflam - one of Pryderi's hounds. 


Flur - daughter of Mynach Gorr. She was abducted by the Imperial Caesar and King Mwrchan the Thief and taken to Gaul. But she is rescued by Caswallon. 


Fodor - son of Ervyll, and one of the Seven Chiefs. 


Gessa - a bond of secrecy. Any personal or tribal taboo.


Gilvaethwy - youngest son of Don, nephew to Math, and a Prince of Gwynedd (North Wales). His desire for Goewyn, Math's virgin footholder, led Gwydion to set in motion the war with Dyved (Mid & South West Wales). 


Glain Neidr - the holy mystic stone made by serpants. A crystal of this was set in Llwyd's ring, and it held great power. 


Glamorgan (South Wales) - reputed point of orgin for Gwydion and Llew when they came as bards to Caer Arianrhod. 


Glelwyd - a rich man of Arvon. 


Glen Cuch - deep woods in Dyved, near Llyn Diarwya, where Pwyll was hunting when he met Arawn. 


Gloyu Broad Realm - grandfather to Kigva. His people were warriors and witch-priestesses who dwelt by the Severn (Border between England and South East Wales). 


Gluneu - one of the Seven Who Returned from Ireland. 


Goewyn - virgin footholder to Math. Daughter of Pebin of Dol Pebin in Arvon. Most beautiful girl in Gwynedd (North Wales) (with the possible exception of Arianrhod). Gwydion began the

war with Dyved so that Gilvaethy could have his will with Goewyn. She later becomes Math's wife and Queen of Gwynedd possibly the first, for it was the first time that a King of Gwynedd had married. 


Goronwy Pevr - Lord of Penllyn. While hunting with his men, he came near Mur y Castell and Blodeuwedd asked him to stay the night. There, in Llew's absence, he became her lover and together they plotted to kill Llew. Blodeuwedd tricked Llew into telling her of the one way in which he might be killed. Goronwy used his knowledge to slay Llew, but Gwydion restored Llew and later Llew

kills Goronwy. 


Gorsedd Arberth - mound of Death that towers above Aberth. The burial mound of Dyved's first king, Heveydd the Ancient. All feared it, but in times of great peril, Dyved's king must climb it, where he would either see a wonder, showing the god's favors, or else be slain by his True Companions who had mounted the hill with him.

When Pwyll mounted it, he returned with Rhiannon out of Faery. But when Pryderi mounted it, Llwyd blasted Dyved. It has ever been a doorway to the Bright World, the one spot on earth where Arawn has no power. 


Govannon - second born son of Don, and a Prince of Gwynedd (North Wales). He was named first of smiths and his forge stood in the Vale of Conwy (North Wales coast). With Math, he developed the

Drink of Immortality. Through a trick of Arianrhod, he slew her son Dylan, his own nephew. He was also a master of arms and weapons. 


Grey - Arawn's stallion. 


Grey Man - every world has one, except Earth, which shares Arawn with Annwn. The Grey Man is a Death Lord. The Grey Man of the Bright World is the famous wizard Llwyd ap Kilcoed, who blasted Dyved for seven years, until finally being defeated by Manawyddan. 


Grudyen - one of the Seven Who Returned from Ireland. 


Guri - Pryderi's alias at the shepherd's hut. 


Guri of the Golden Hair - Pryderi's name as a child being raised by Teyrnon. 


Gwales - in Penvro. The feast with the Talking Head of Bran which lasted for 80 days was held here. But because of the singing of the birds of Rhiannon, it seemed like 80 years. Now called Gresholm, the Pembrokeshire Isle. (South West Wales)


Gwawl the Bright - son of Cludd. He was Rhiannon's suitor in the Bright World, and Heveydd the Ancient had promised him Rhiannon's hand in marriage. Though Rhiannon chose Pwyll instead, Gwawl tricked Pwyll into

giving Rhiannon away. However, a year-and-a-day later, Pwyll returned to the Bright World and tricked Gwawl to get Rhiannon back, while making Gwawl promise never to seek revenge. 


Gwennan(1) - daughter of Don, and a Princess of Gwynedd (North Wales). She dwelt at Caer Arianrhod with her sisters and was a

sacred priestess who guarded the Eye of the Deep. She escaped to Gwennan's Grave when Caer Arianrhod was destroyed. 


Gwennan(2) - father of Owein. 


Gwennan's Grave - place to which Gwennan(1) escaped, from the destruction of Caaer Arianrhod. 


Gwent (South East Wales) - Teyrnon's realm. 


Gwern - son of Branwen and Matholuch. Killed by

Evnissyen while in the House of Bran in Ireland when still a baby. 


Gwlad yr Hud - "The Land of Enchantment", Dyved (Mid & South West Wales). 


Gwlch - he and Heveydd the Tall are the oldest of the Seven Chiefs. 


Gwrgi Gwastra - son of Pryderi and Kigva. 


Gwri - variant of Guri (q.v.). 


Gwydion - first born of Don, High Prince of Gwynedd (North Wales), Official Controller of the Royal Household, successor to Math. Supreme magician (a craft he learned from Math) and bard and shapeshifter. Responsible for the war with

Pryderi. Brother and lover to Arianrhod. Father of Llew. Triads name him one of the Three Famous Tribe-Herdsmen of the Island, for he cared for the cattle of Gwynedd Uch Conwy (North Wales coast). Triads also name him as one of the Three

Skilled Astrologers, the other two being Idris and Gwyn ap Nudd. And they also name him one of the Three Gold-Shoemakers, the other two being Caswallon and Manawyddan. 


Gwyn ap Nudd - the White One, a King of the Underworld. Triads name him as one of the Three Skilled Astrologers, the other two being Gwydion and Idris. 


Gwynedd (North Wales) - Northern realm ruled by Math the Ancient. Home of many of the Prydyn. Last stronghold of the Old Tribes and Ancient Harmonies in the Island of the Mighty. 


Gwynedd Uch Conwy (North Wales coast) - where Gwydion cared for the cattle, for which the Triads name him one of the Three Famous Tribe-Herdsmen. 


Gwynn the Ancient - father of Heilyn. 


Gwythur - one of Pryderi's hounds. 


Havgan - "Summer-White." Lord of the Dead of the Eastern World. God of Everlasting Fire and Eternal Death. Challenged Arawn as King of Annwn. Arawn failed in the first battle, but he switches places with Pwyll who defeats Havgan by refusing to strike more than one blow in the battle a year-and-a-day later. Havgan is also called Nergal, Lord of the Abyss. 


Heilyn - son of Gwynn the Ancient; one of the Seven Who Returned from Ireland. He ended the 80-day feast in Gwales by opening the Third Door in the Hall. 


Henvelen - a river seen on the 80th day of the feast in Gwales. 


Hereford (England) - later name of the town in Logres where Manawyddan, Rhiannon, and Pryderi came after the blasting of Dyved. 


Heveydd the Ancient - King in the Bright World, where Rhiannon is his daughter. He had been Dyved's first king on earth, where Rhiannon had been his Faery-bride. His earthly bones lay at the bottom of Gorsedd Arberth. Earlier still, Rhiannon had been his mother. 


Heveydd the Tall - he and Gwlch were the oldest of the Seven Chiefs. 


Him that Hides in the Wood - Kilcoed, father of Llwyd. 


Holywell / Treffynnon, Flintshire, North Wales.  There is a well whose waters are said to have healing powers. Here Winifred, a beautiful young nun, was victim of an attempted rape by Caradog, the son of a local chieftain. When she resisted he drew his sword and cut off her head. A spring came from the ground where she had been beheaded. Saint Bueno, who was her protector, saw what happened. He put a curse on Caradog, who died.

He then lifted Winifred's head and placed it on her body, saying a prayer.Winifred was restored to life. A curse was placed on Caradog's family,

which could only be lifted if they sought pennance from the church.Winefride became an abbess at Gwytherin Convent, near Llanwrst. Her remains were taken to Shrewsbury cathedral in 1138

Saint Winefride's well is among the seven wonders of Wales according to the rhyme:


Pistyll Rhaedr and Wrexham Steeple

Snowdon's mountain without its people

Overton Yew Trees, Saint Winefride's Well

Llangollen Bridge and Gresford Bells


House of Bran - as an offering of peace, under Branwen's direction, the men of Ireland built a house large enough for Bran. Here, Gwern was killed and the ensuing war was begun. 


Hu the Mighty - killed a man for bringing the Casket of Ancient Spells from the Sinking Lands. 


Huw - son of Cradoc. Chieftan in the town where

Manawyddan and Pryderi were shieldmakers. 


Hychdwn the Tall (the High) - pig whom Math changed to a boy. Hychdwn was parented by Gwydion and Gilvaethwy while they were sentenced by Math to roam the forests of

Gwynedd (North Wales) in the shape of beasts, for their offence against Goewyn. 


Hydwn the Fawn - fawn who was changed to a boy by Math. Hydwn was parented by Gwydion and Gilvaethwy while they were sentenced by Math to roam the forests of Gwynedd (North Wales) in

the shape of beasts, for their offence against Goewyn. 


Iddic - one of the Seven Chiefs. 


Idris - triads name him one of the Three Skilled

Astrologers, the other two being Gwydion and Gwyn ap Nudd. 


Imperial Caesar - he and King Mwrchan the Thief abduct Flur and take her into Gaul. They are defeated by Caswallon. 


Iron House - made from the iron of a fallen comet by the Irish to trap and kill Llassar and his family. Once they were inside, a great fire was built around it. However, Llassar, his wife, and the two children she carried escaped. 


Island of the Mighty - largest of the British Isles. 


Kai - son of an unidentified rich man of Arvon. Brother of Kilydd. 


Kaw - one of Pryderi's hounds. 


Kein Galed - Pwyll's chestnut stallion. 


Keli - twin to Kueli, son of Llassar. The twins were

born to Kymideu Kymeinvoll when she broke out of the Iron House. Both boys were admirers of Evnissyen. 


Kent - Caswallon was there when Pryderi and Manawyddan returned to Arberth. 


Keredigion - site of the first Mochdrev. 


Keri - between here and Arwystli is the second Mochdrev.


Keridwen - variant of Ceridwen. 


Kicva - variant of Kigva. 


Kigva - Pryderi's bride, granddaughter of Gloyu Broad Realm. Her people are mostly warriors or

witch-priestesses who dwell by the Severn (Border between England and South East Wales). She and

Rhiannon ruled Dyved in Pryderi's absence. Her aunts are called the Nine Witches. 


Kilcoed - "Him that Hides in the Wood." Father of Llwyd.


Kilydd - son of an unidentified rich man of Arvon.

Brother to Kai. 


Kueli - twin to Keli, son of Llassar. The twins were

born to Kymideu Kymeinvoll when she broke out of the Iron House. Both boys were admirers of Evnissyen. 


Kymideu Kymeinvoll - wife of Llassar the Flame. A

giantess who helped to steal the Cauldron of Rebirth from Arawn. When in Ireland, she gave birth to many warrior-children, which caused the Irish to drive them from the land, to the Island of the Mighty. 


Land of Illusion and Glamour - Dyved. So named for the seven-year blight put on the land by Llwyd, and for the closeness of its Lords to the Lord of Annwn, and for Gorsedd Arberth. 


Llassar the Flame - a giant who, together with his

giantess wife, stole a shadow of the Cauldron of Rebirth from Arawn and brought it to Ireland. When driven from that land, they brought the Cauldron to the Island of the Mighty where they gave it to Bran. 


Llassar - son of Llassar the Flame, greatest warrior of the Seven Chiefs. 


Llech Goronwy - spear-pierced slab of stone with which Goronwy attempted to shield himself from Llew. 


Lleu - variant of Llew. 


Llevelys - third son of Beli. 


Llew LLaw Gyffes - son of Arianrhod, delivered of her when Math tested her claim of virginity. His father is Gwydion, and it is he that raises the boy to be his heir. When Arianrhod opposes him, Gwydion resorts to magic to win from Arianrhod a name and arms for the boy. But the final destiny that she lays upon Llew is the hardest, and both Math and Gwydion are needed to circumvent it. Llew is slain by Goronwy Pevr and is transformed into an eagle, symbol of a sun-god. Llew may

represent light while his brother Dylan represents



Llew's Town - Dinas Dinllev. 


Lloegyr - Llwyd, disguised as a bard, told Manawyddan he came from here. 


Llud - first son of Beli, though he did not wish to

contest Bran for the throne, as did Beli's second son, Caswallon. 


Llwndrys - (London) Coronation site of the High King of the Island of the Mighty. Both Bran and Caswallon were crowned here, under the White Mount. 


Llwyd ap Kilcoed - Grey Man of the Bright World, son of Him that Hides in the Wood. Pwyll incurred his wrath by entering the Bright World to defeat his friend Gwawl, Rhiannon's intended bridegroom, in order that he could marry her. Later, after Pwyll's death, Pryderi mounted

Gorsedd Arberth, bringing him within reach of the Grey Man, who blasted Dyved for seven years. In the end, he is defeated by the cleverness of Manawyddan who capture's Llwyd's wife, in the shape of a mouse, and extracts from the Grey Man his promise to take no vengeance on the land and people of Dyved. Llwyd is the Death Lord of the Bright World. 


Llyn Diarwya - half-way between Arberth and Glen Cuch, Pwyll and his men slept here while hunting, the day before Pwyll met Arawn. 


Llyn y Morwynion - Lake of the Maidens, where the serving maids of Blodeuwedd fell while being pursued by Gwydion. 


Llyr Llediaith - Llyr "Half-speech." Coming from the mainland, he spoke the Island speech haltingly. He was a Chief of the Old Tribes, who slept with Beli's sister, dark-haired Penardim. He was held captive for a time by Eurosswydd mab Maelgwyn, for which Penardim herself was the ransom. Llyr was father of Bran, Manawyddan, and Branwen. 


Llys Don - the court of Don, where her children grew up together. The Welsh give this name to the constellation Cassiopeia. 


Logres - where Rhiannon, Manawyddan, Kigva, and Pryderi first came, after the destruction of Dyved. 


Lost Lands of the West - through the use of powerful magic such as that contained in the Casket of Ancient Spells, the sea rose up and claimed these lands. They may have been connected to the Sinking Lands. Caer Sidi

was probably its capitol. 


Lugaid - Matholuch's champion. 


Mabon ab Modron - "son of the Mother." She gives birth to him (Arawn) each year. 


Maelan - daughter of Don, and Princess of Gwynedd (North Wales). Dwelt at Caer Arianrhod with her sisters. A sacred priestess who guarded the Eye of the Deep. She escaped to the Moor

of Maelan when Caer Arianrhod is destroyed. 


Maelgwyn - father of Eurosswydd. 


Maenor of Coed Alun - Coed Helen lay between here and the Maenor of Penardd. 


Maenor of Penardd - field where the host of Math first made camp in the war with Dyved. 


Maen Tyriawc - above the Velenryd; Pryderi's burial place. 


Manawyddan - second son of Llyr and Penardim; brother to Bran, High King of the Island of the Mighty; one of the seven to return from the war in Ireland. Triads name him the Third Landless Prince. He was actual father to Pryderi and became Rhiannon's husband after Pwyll had

died. His magic and cleverness protected Dyved from Caswallon and defeated Llwyd, Death Lord of the Bright World. He should have been High King after Bran's death, but decided not to dispute Caswallon, who had seized the throne. He was also named by the Triads as one of the Three Gold-Shoemakers, the other two being Gwydion and



March ap Meirchion - uncle of Tristan; famed in legend for having the ears of a horse. 


Math the Ancient - son of Mathonwy and King of Gwynedd (North Wales). Brother of Don. He is a High Druid pre-eminent in wizardry. Legend told that the wind was his servant and carried the words of other men to him. Most long-lived

of any of the Island of the Mighty. 


Matholuch - High King of Ireland who came to the Island of the Mighty to marry Branwen so that his son might rule both Islands. However, his chiefs of the New Tribes demanded that he dishonor Branwen to avenge the insult of Evnissyen. In doing so, he triggered the great war between Ireland and the Island of the Mighty, in which

the Cauldron of Rebirth would play a part. He fatally wounded Bran, but Manawyddan avenged that death. 


Mathonwy - father of Math the Ancient. 


Melenryd - although the main battle was over, here

fighting broke out as Math's army escorted Pryderi's to the border, after the war between Gwynedd (North Wales) and Dyved (Mid and South West Wales). 


Melenydd - Gwydion and his Twelve Companions crossed these green lands as they fled Dyved with the stolen swine. 


Melyngan Gamre - "Steed of the Yellow-white Footsteps," Llew's steed. 


Menai - river which lay near Caer Seon (North Wales). 


Merioneth - its shores could be seen from the Rock of Harlech (North Wales coast), being below it. Here, Matholuch's hosts first landed. 


Meslam - Havgan's realm in Annwn, the chief city of which was Anghar the Loveless. 


Minawg ap Lleu - a son of Llew, mentioned by Taliesin, though he does not appear in the Mabinogi. 


Mochdrev(1) - in Keredigion. It means "swine-town". This was the first resting place for Gwydion and his Twelve Companions, as they fled Dyved with the stolen swine. 


Mochdrev(2) - between Keri and Arwystli. The second "swine-town" and the second resting place for Gwydion and his Twelve Companions, as they fled Dyved with the stolen swine. 


Mochdrev(3) - within the Cantrev of Rhos, in Gwynedd (North Wales). The third "swine-town." 


Mochnant - in Powys. "Burn of the swine," this is the third resting place for Gwydion and his Twelve

companions as they fled Dyved with the stolen swine. 


Modron - "Mother." The Goddess behind all the Gods. Arawn, Death Lord, is her first-born and servant and husband. She dwells in Annwn with him, and is also called Brenhines-y-nef. 


Mona - green Isle of the Druids. Probably Anglesey, North Wales. 


Moor of Maelan - place to which Maelan escaped, from the final destruction of Caer Arianrhod. 


Morddwydtyllyon - as Bran's hosts were leaving Ireland, they were ambushed, and here Matholuch cast the spear that fatally wounded Bran. 


Mur y Castell - castle of Llew and Blodeuwedd in



Mwrchan the Thief - a king who, together with the

Imperial Caesar, abducted Flur and took her into Gaul. He is defeated by Caswallon. 


Mynach Gorr - father of Flur. 


Myvyrian Archaiology - ancient source which mentions the Cad Goddeu. 


Nant Call - brook where Pryderi's army retreated and suffered a decisive blow, in the war against Gwynedd (North Wales). 


Nant y Llew - where Gwydion found the remains of Llew, and his spirit trapped in the shape of an eagle. 


Nergal - another name of Havgan, Lord of the Abyss. 


New Tribes - supplanted the Prydyn in Dyved, as well as other places. Brought the idea of fathering and no longer revered the Mothers nor observed the Ancient Harmonies. They came from the far eastern valleys of the Altai. 


Nine Witches - Kigva's nine aunts, who now rule over Caer Loyu, by the Severn (Border between England and South East Wales). 


Nissyen - twin of Evnissyen, and son of Penardim and Eurosswydd. He had great compassion and was the only one who could understand or control his twin, who he gave his life to protect during the war with Ireland. 


Nudd - father of Gwyn, the White One. 


Official Controller of the Royal Household - Gwydion. 


Old Tribes - descended from the Prydyn, first rulers of Prydain. Followed the Ancient Harmonies, worshipped the Mothers, and observed a matrilinear form of succession, a man being followed by his sister's son. 


Owein ap Gwennan - accompanied Gwydion on his raid on Dyved (Mid & South West Wales); later to become a herald in Gwynedd (North Wales). 


Oxford (England) - where Pryderi came to pay tribute to Caswallon, so called at a later time. It was a place of teaching and Druidcraft. 


Pair Dadeni - the Cauldron of Rebirth. 


Pebin - mother of Goewyn. Dwelt at Dol Pebin in Arvon. 


Penardd - in Arvon. Field where the host of Math first made camp in the war with Dyved. 


Penardim the Dark Woman - sister of Beli of the Deep, High King to the Island of the Mighty. Married to Llyr, a Chief of the Old Tribes. When he is held captive, she herself is the ransom. She is mother to Bran, Manawyddan, Branwen, and (by Eurosswydd) Nissyen and Evnissyen.  


Pendaran Dyved - cousin to Pwyll, a young Druid of Dyved who followed the Ancient Harmonies, and generally opposed Dyved's High Druid, though he succeeded him. For many years he advised Pwyll, and after Pwyll's death, he guided and protected Rhiannon and Kigva while Dyved's young lord was away. Pendaran Dyved was present in the body of a young page when Caswallon slew the Seven

Chiefs of the Island of the Mighty, seizing the throne of High King. 


Penllyn - realm of Goronwy Pevr. 


Penvro - site of Gwales. 


Powys (Mid & North West Wales) - neighboring kingdom to Gwynedd (North Wales). Site of



Preseli Mountains (South West Wales) - in Dyved. Home of the blue stone circle, the Eldest Folk. Also, the location of the shepherd's hut where Manawyddan and Pryderi stayed upon returning to Dyved from Ireland. 


Prydain - Britain. 


Pryderi - son of Pwyll, King of Dyved. (Actually, he was fathered by Manawyddan.) His mother is Rhiannon, Pwyll's wife out of Faery. Pryderi was stolen on the night of his birth (Beltane) by a monster out of Faery. He is delivered back to his parents three years later by Teirnyon (Teyrnon) who had named the boy Gwri (Guri) of the Golden Hair. He was a great warrior, one of the Seven Who Returned from Ireland. His wife is Kigva. He

later mounted Gorsedd Arberth and challenged the powers that laid waste Dyved for seven years. He himself was captured by those powers, but was rescued by Manawyddan. His name seems to have meant "care". 


Prydeyi - variant of Pryderi. 


Prydyn - magic-wielding race of Prydain whose birth may have been in lands now lost beneath the Western sea. 


Pwyll - King of Dyved. While hunting, he meets Arawn, King of Annwn, who persuades Pwyll to change places with him and so help defend Annwn from Havgan, Lord of the Eastern Dead and Everlasting Fire. After slaying Havgan with one stroke, he returns to Dyved where he continues

a long friendship with Arawn, Death Lord. Later, under pressure of his Druids to take a wife, he mounts Gorsedd Arberth, where he meets Rhiannon, his faery-bride. His name seems to have meant "thought". 


Rhiannon Oset of Faery - called Rhiannon of the Wondrous Birds. A Goddess of Birds and Steeds. A Faery-bride to Pwyll, as she had been to other rulers of Dyved, including Heveydd the Ancient, Dyved's first king. She was also his mother, and later, in the Bright World, his daughter. After Pwyll died, she became wife to Manawyddan. She was mother to Pryderi, who was protected

by her spells on Gorsedd Arberth. Manawyddan rescued her from capture by the Grey Man of the Bright World. 


Rhos - this cantrev is the site of the third Mochdrev. 


Rhuddlan Teivi (Noerth Wales) - site of Pryderi's palace when Gwydion raided Dyved (Mid & South West Wales). 


Rhun - first soldier of the Island of the Mighty to be killed by the Cauldron-born. 


Rock of Harlech (North Wales coast) - where Bran held court. Matholuch's host first landed here. 


Saint Derfel, a Celtic saint. Llanderfel (North Wales) is named after him and has a church dedicated to him. His reputation was such that pilgrimages to the church were common at one time, the bones of his horse and his staff being kept in the porch. An image kept at the church was burned at the time of the Reformation.


Seven Cantrevs of Seissyllwch - originally, a part of the old Dyved, until the New Tribes Chieftans took them over. When they began mistreating Old Tribesmen, Bran permitted Pryderi to break peace and take them back. After that, he and Kigva dwelt there. 


Seven Chiefs - left behind to rule the Island of the

Mighty during the war with Ireland. Caradoc, Unic Glew, Iddic, Fodor, and Llassar, plus Heveydd the Tall and Gwlch. All were killed by Caswallon, while he was invisible, except Caradoc, though he died of his love for the six who were slain. 


Seven Sleeping Women - six women were set to watch over Rhiannon and her new-born child. They all fell into a charmed sleep, and the six women, waking to find Rhiannon still asleep and the child gone, determined to accuse her of eating it, in order to escape blame. 


Seven Who Returned from Ireland - Manawyddan, Ynawc, Grudyen, Gluneu, Taliesin, Pryderi, and Heilyn. 


Severn (Border between England and South East Wales) - by the banks of this river was the home of



Sinking Lands - its tall forests once joined Anglesey (North Wales) to Carnarvon. The hosts of Bran crossed it to reach Ireland. Bran himself waded across. They may have been connected with the Lost Lands of the West. 


Steed of the Yellow-white Footsteps - Melyngan Gamre. 


Straits of Menai - separates Anglesey (North Wales) from the Island of the Mighty. 


Sumer - Havgan's earthly realm, near the sunrise. Its chief temple is Cuthah. 


Talebolyon - site of Aber Alaw. 


Taliesin - many-lived poet, bard, and shapeshifter. He has the ability to remember previous lives. He was one of the Seven Who Returned from Ireland. And he was at Caer Dathyl during Gwydion's childhood. 


Taliessin - variant of Taliesin. 


Talking Head of Bran - on leaving Ireland, the survivors of Bran's army were ambushed at Morddwydtyllyon, and there Matholuch cast the spear which fatally wounded Bran. Bran bid Manawyddan to cut off his head to carry

back to Llwndrys. But stopping at Gwales in Penvro, the seven men and the Talking Head of Bran feasted for 80 days. Though, with the singing of the Birds of Rhiannon, it seems like 80 years. 


Tara - capitol city of Matholuch, Ireland's High King, named for an ancient female king. 


Teirnyon - variant of Teyrnon. 


Teyrnon of the Thunder Flood - lord of Gwent (South East Wales), fought the monster from out of Faery on Beltane to rescue Pryderi. He raised Pryderi for his first three years. 


Third Landless Prince - Manawyddan. 


Three Birds of Midir - they suck out a man's courage on the way to battle. 


Three Chief Guardians - Triads name Caradoc as one of them. 


Three Evil Uncoverings - the Triads say the uncovering of the head of Bran was one of them. 


Three Famous Tribe-Herdsmen - Triads name Gwydion as one of them. 


Three Gold-Shoemakers - Triads name them as Caswallon, Manawyddan, and Gwydion. 


Three Good Concealments - Triads say the burial of Bran's head was one of them. 


Three Isles of Prydain - the British Isles. 


Three Landless Princes - Triads name Manawyddan as the Third. 


Three Nefarious Blows of the Isle of Britain - Triads name Govannon striking Dylan as one of the, and the butcher of Matholuch striking Branwen as another. 


Three Skilled Astrologers - Triads name them as Gwydion, Gwyn ap Nudd, and Idris. 


Town of the Seven Chiefs - where Caradoc and the other six chiefs were left behind to rule the Island of the Mighty during the war with Ireland. 


Traeth Mawr - the hosts crossed it as Math's army

escorted Pryderi's from the land and back to the borders of Dyved. 


Twelve Gods - the first Twelve of earth, prototype of all the Twelves which were to follow. The Twelve stones of the inner circle at Stonehenge, brought out of the Preseli Mountains (South West Wales) in Dyved. 


Tyddyn Elen - place to which Elen escaped, from the destruction of Caer Arianrhod. 


Ulster - stronghold of the Old Tribes in Northern



Unic Glew - one of the Seven Chiefs. 


Usk - where Manawyddan first saw enchantment like unto Llwyd's blasting of Dyved. 


Vale of the Conwy (North Wales coast) - where Govannon's forge stood, in Caer Govannon, at the mouth of the river Conwy. 


Velenryd - ford of the river Cynvael, where Gwydion and Pryderi met in battle, following the war between Gwynedd (North Wales) and Dyved (Mid & South West Wales). 


White Mare of Arberth - Pwyll's Druids believed it

embodied the ancient Goddess of Dyved. Only the young Druid, Pwyll's cousin Pendaran Dyved, did not believe this. Pwyll refused to mate with it, and so incurred the anger of his High Druid, who thought Pwyll would be cursed for his refusal. 


White Mount - in Llwndrys, where Bran's head was buried. The Tower of London stands there now. Triads called the burial of Bran's head the Third Good Concealment. 


White One - Gwyn ap Nudd. 


White Shadow - Havgan. 


World of Middle Light - Annwn. 


Ynawc - one of the Seven Who Returned from Ireland. 


Ynys Bronwen - "Branwen's Isle." Her burial site became surrounded by water and became a small islet near Anglesey (North Wales).


Ynys Enlli – now known as Bardsey Island (North Wales). A small island of just under 500 acres with the highest point being around 500 feet. The Welsh name refers to the strong and dangerous currents that flow between the island and the mainland.

Often described as the island of 20,000 saints after an exodus of monks from Bangor-is-coed following the battle of Chester AD 615. The island became an

important centre for pilgrimage, three pilgrimages to Bardsey were equivalent of one to Rome. The first monastery was founded in 429 by Cadfan, a monk from Brittany and the abbey was dedicated to Saint Mary. Saint Dyfrig died here around 545 and was buried on the island. The island is a site of special scientific interest. According to Gerald of Wales, nobody died at Ynys Enlli except from extreme old age. The island was owned at one time by the Wynn family and there are tales of the "King of Bardsey" being appointed. This was one of the islanders, whose task it was to arbitrate in disputes between islanders. In the mid-20th century the island was still being used for sheep farming.





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